Division of Horticulture and Forestry

Scientists

The Horticulture & Forestry Division of CARI, Port Blair was created along with inception of CARI, Port Blair in 1983 to look after the research activities on horticultural and agro-forestry crops for developing this sector as sustainable source of livelihood as enshrined in the institute mandate.

Thrust area

  • Conservation and utilization of island horticulture biodiversity for development of island specific high yielding varieties
  • Bioprospecting of potential horticultural crops for food and health uses.
  • Development of ‘production practices’ for climate change resilient island horticulture
  • Training to local human resource in horticultural for entrepreneurship development
  • Provide policy inputs to local administration for development of island horticulture

Infrastructure

Research Facilities
Research Farms:
  • Sipighat Research Farm (32 ha)- coconut, arecanut, spices, Noni
  • Garacharma research Farm (10 ha) – Vegetables, Tuber crops, Fruits, Ornamental, Medicinal plants, Noni
  • Germplasm Blocks: Noni, Underutilized Vegetables and Fruits, Medicinal plants, World Coconut Germplasm Centre (WCGC), Tuber Crops, Orchids & ferns.
  • Protected Cultivation Block: Flowers and vegetables (3000 sq meter)
  • Horticulture Nursery Block: Open, Protected, Mist chamber, 500 sp meter
Laboratory facilities
Horticulture Biochemistry & Biotechnology Lab:
  • Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC)
  • UV-Spectrophotometer
  • Rotary Evapometer
  • PCR machine
  • Gel Documentation System
  • Gel Electrophoresis
  • Freezes
  • Flame Photometer
  • Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)
  • Minor Analytical instruments
Field Laboratory
  • With Sample drying, Sample preparation, Weighing and grading facilities

Projectwise Achievements (recent)

Fruits:

Varietal Evaluation and Standardization of Agro techniques in Tropical Fruits:
  • Eighteen mango clones were examined for characterized using DNA markers and biochemical parameters. A mango germplasm block developed.
  • GL-1 and GL-2 local collections of papaya were found promising for yield and quality.
  • Biochemical and molecular characterization of local banana collections done.
Studies on effect of plant growth promoting biocontrol agents on growth and yield of papaya:
  • Significant increase in yield of papaya was observed by treating seedlings with pseudomonas + spraying of pseudomonas @ 0.2% and soil application of Trichoderma @ 2.5kg/ha at 30 day interval. No incidence of root rot was observed in same module while it was 25.0% in control.
Introduction and Evaluation of Exotic and Less Known Indigenous Fruit crops:
  • Collected and conserved underutilized fruits of islands.
  • Germination of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) improved by GA3 treatment.
  • Early germination was observed in Noni collections (MEM-3 and GAH-1, 5 days) as compared to other collections (HD-6 and PBAY-7, 19-20 days).
National Network Project on Underutilized Fruits:
  • Seven accessions each of mangosteen, durian and rambutan were collected from Regional station, IIHR, Chettali and Horticulture farm of Kallar and Burliar from Tamil Nadu and introduced in the field gene bank established at Garacharma farm. Two accessions of avocado and one accession each of longan, Garcinia and passion fruit were also collected from diverse sources and introduced.
  • The germination percent was highest in Passion fruit (55%), followed by Mangosteen (45%) and Avocado (40%) with least in Rambutan (25%). The minimum time for germination.
  • Physico-chemical characteristics of mangosteen, rambutan and passion fruit were analysed. Among the fruits, maximum TSS content was recorded in mangosteen (19.6 0 Brix) followed by rambutan (19.6 0 Brix). Highest percent of juice (28.93 %) and acidity (1.80 %) was recorded in passion fruit.
Collection, characterization and agrotechniques standardization of fruit crops in A & N Islands (ongoing):
  • In mango, 18 genotypes from different parts of islands have been characterized at morphological and biochemical level
  • 40 genotypes have been characterized at molecular level with help of RAPD markers.
  • In Bael, eight genotypes have been identified and characterized at morphological and molecular level

Plantation and spices:

Improvement of coconut and arecanut:
  • Arecanut variety Samrudhi (185 nuts/tree) and Mangala (614 nos./tree) were found promising.
  • Identified a high yielding arecanut selection ‘CARI-Sel-1’ for islands.
  • Assessed morphological and molecular diversity in coconut collections.
  • Developed four varieties of coconut namely, CARI-C-1(CARI-Annapurna), CARI-C-2 (CARI-Surya), CARI-C-3 (CARI-Omkar) and CARI-C-4 (CARI-Chandan).
Standardization of agro0techniques for organic black pepper cultivation in Andaman and Nicobar islands:
  • Developed ‘Coconut- clove- black pepper’ and ‘Coconut- nutmeg- black pepper’ models.
  • Leaf litter and Gliricidia pruning biomass together was found to produce 151 kg ha-1yr-1 N, 11kg ha-1yr-1 P and 158kg ha-1yr-1 K in coconut- nutmeg- black pepper model.
  • Organic fertilizer application by ‘vermicompost+BP+ pseudomonas’ to black pepper resulted the highest yield (439.6 kg/ha).
Development of dwarf coconut varieties for Andaman and Nicobar Islands (ongoing):
  • Four combinations of D x D crosses (AYD x AGD, AOD x AGD, AGD x AOD) and three D x T crosses (CARI-Chandan x AOT, CARI-Annapurna x AOT, CARI-Surya x AOT) were attempted.
  • Collinpur, Kurumadera and Burmanallah villages were surveyed for dwarf coconut varieties.

Vegetables and tuber crops:

Collection, conservation, documentation and utilization of indigenous vegetables from Andaman & Nicobar Islands:
  • Collected and conserved 118 germplasm of Indigenous vegetables including Centella (9), Eryngium foetidum (8), Capsicum (15), Luffa spp. (2), Amaranthus (5). Three deposited in NBPGR.
  • Developed nutritional (proximate, nutrients and anti-nutrients) and phytochemical profile of 20 indigenous vegetables.
  • Documented 42 Indigenous vegetables and their associated food and health perceptions from all the three districts of islands.
  • Developed Eryngium foetidum variety ‘CARI Broad Dhaniya’ and superior genotypes of Basella (CARI Poi Selection), Amaranthus (CARI-AMA-Selection), Alternenthra (CARI-Alternenthra-2), Hibiscus sabdariffa (CARI-HB-Selection).
  • Assessed extent of genetic diversity in Colocasia (71), Capsicum (60%) and Centella (54%).
  • Developed database of Indigenous vegetables using Bioinformatics software.
  • Developed Nutri-rich fortified products from Indigenous vegetables viz., Fortified Biscuits, Fortified Idli, Fortified Vada for household nutrition.
Improvement and Standardization of Agrotechniques of vegetable crops:
  • Cowpea var. Sweta (112.6 q/ha), french bean var. Contender (116.0q/ha), IIHR-909 (112.5q/ha) and Arka Anoop (96.0q/ha) were found promising.
  • 'Coconut husk based raised bed technology’ developed for vegetable cultivation in Tsunami (sea water) affected lands.
Standardization of technologies for protected cultivation of vegetable crops under Bay Island ecosystem:
  • Identified suitable varieties of tomato (cv. G-600, Arka Vikas, Arka Ananya), capsicum (cv. Indra, California Wonder) and cauliflower (cv. White Marble and White Shot), French bean (cv. Arka Anoop, Arka Komal), green onion (cv. Agrifound Dark Red, NHRDF Red).
  • For capsicum and cauliflower, the suitable spacing level identified as 60 x 40 cm (33.1t/ha) and 45 x 30cm (22.5t/ha), respectively.
  • Growing media (Coconut Husk + Vermicompost + Lime::1:1:0.1) standardized for management of bacterial wilt in tomato and capsicum.
  • Grafting technique for bacterial wilt management in tomato was developed using S. torvum rootstock.
  • ‘Round the year’ cauliflower production technology was developed using rainshelters in off-season (rainy season; May-November) and tropical varieties (cv. White Marble and White Shot) in March-April.
Collection, documentation and bioprospecting of perennial vegetables of Andaman & Nicobar Islands (ongoing):
  • Colleted and conserved germplasm of Momordica spp. (2), Trichosanthus (2) and Drumstick (35).
  • Phyotchemical and antioxidant activity of fruit extracts of Momordica dioica, M. cochinchinensis and Trichosanthus tricuspidata were assessed.
  • Stage specific changes were assessed in phytochemicals in Momordica dioica.
  • Genetic diversity in drumstick collections from islands is analysed using RAPD and ISSR markers.
Standardization of technologies to ensure supply of high value vegetables for defence forces in Andaman and Nicobar islands(ongoing) :
  • Developed ‘Rainshelter cauliflower technology’ for rainy season in islands.
  • Developed ‘Package of practices’ for ‘Export quality poi’.
All India Coordinated Research Project on Vegetable Crops (ongoing):
  • Identified promising genotypes of French bean (Contender, 11.6t/ha; Arka Komal, 11.5t/ha; Arka Anoop, 10.2t/ha), Cowpea (Shewetha, 13.15t/ha; Indira Hari, 10.7t/ha; Swarna Harita, 9.6t/ha), Dolichos bean (IIVR Sem-8, 9.6t/ha; IIVR Sem-11, 9.3t/ha; Gomuchi Green, 6.5t/ha), Okra (10/OKHYB-8, 8.6 t/ha; Arka Anamika, 8.5t/ha; 09/OKHYB-9, 8.2t/ha; 09/OKHYB-10, 7.1t/ha), Chilli (LCA-353, 19.8t/ha; Arka Lohit, 15.7t/ha; CARI-Sel-1, 15.2t/ha) and Brinjal (CARI-B-1, 24.6t/ha; BB-69, 24.1t/ha; PB-60, 22.5t/ha).
All India Coordinated Research Project on Tuber Crops (ongoing):
  • A total of 36 genotypes of tuber crops are being maintained in the germplasm pool.
  • Two varieties of Sweet Potato (CARI-SP-1 and CARI SP- 2) and one variety of Dioscorea (CARI Yamini) were released.

Flowers and ornamental crops

Standardization of Technology for Production of Quality Flowers Under Island Ecosystem :
  • Gerbera varieties Manizales (40 flowers/ plant/season) and Sonata (35 flowers/ plant/season) were found promising for polyhouse cultivation in islands.
Development of production technology for ornamental crops under Bay Island conditions (ongoing):
  • Germplasm collection and conservation of 43 species of speciality flowers
  • Standardization of growing media (soil: sand: coir compost: vermicompost 2:1:1:1) for calla lily
  • The study on tuber treatment with different growth regulators revealed that GA3 100 ppm gave quality flowers when compared to the BA treatment at different concentration in terms of stalk length, number of flowers and flower size.
Collection, Conservation, Characterization and Identification of Superior Clones of Morinda Citrifolia:
  • Collected and conserved 22 accessions of Morinda citrifolia.
  • Estimated 51% genetic diversity in Morinda citrifolia collections using RAPD and ISSR markers.
  • Identified seven superior clones (TRA-1, TRA-2, HD-6, MEM-3, SPG-2, NESAH-15, HBAY-11) on Morinda
  • Assessed phytochemical diversity in Morinda
  • Fatty acid profile of three accessions TRA-1, CARI-1 and TRA-2 was using GC-MS and found the major acid as Linolic acid, Oleic acid & Palmatic acid.
Collection, Conservation, Characterization and Identification of Superior Clones of Morinda Citrifolia:
  • Collected and conserved 22 accessions of Morinda citrifolia.
  • Estimated 51% genetic diversity in Morinda citrifolia collections using RAPD and ISSR markers.
  • Identified seven superior clones (TRA-1, TRA-2, HD-6, MEM-3, SPG-2, NESAH-15, HBAY-11) on Morinda
  • Assessed phytochemical diversity in Morinda
  • Fatty acid profile of three accessions TRA-1, CARI-1 and TRA-2 was using GC-MS and found the major acid as Linolic acid, Oleic acid & Palmatic acid.

Medicinal plants

Standardization of post harvest technologies for Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.)
  • Changes in proximate components and fruit pigments in Noni fruits of different maturity stages was completed successfully during the storage period of 10 days.
  • The physiological loss (%), pH (Post heat and pre-chilling), TSS and total lipid content were studied in different stages of Morinda.
Collection and evaluation of medicinal plants of Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  • Surveyed South and Little Andaman and about 25 species of medicinal plants were conserved.
  • Standardized multiplication protocol for propagation of Piper longum with high survival rate (75%).
Technological Innovations for Commercial Exploitation of Morinda citrifolia as a Livelihood option for Island Farmers (ongoing)
  • Collected and conserved 33 accessions of Morinda citrifolia (at CARI, Port Blair and NBPGR, New Delhi).
  • Developed three high yielding phytochemical rich varieties (CARI Sanjivini, CARI Samridhi and CARI Sampada) and one salinity tolerant variety (CARI Rakshak).
  • Developed ‘Good horticultural practices’ for Morinda citrifolia for open and intercropping with coconut.
  • Developed ‘Soil mount technique’ for Noni cultivation in sea water affected lands.
  • Developed phytochemical profiles of 33 accessions of Morinda citrifolia for phenolics, anthroquninones and carotenoids.
  • Identified Noni as potential intercrop in coconut and arecanut plantations.

Agro-forestry crops

Tree- soil-Crop Interactions in Agro-forestry Practices in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  • Soil N mineralization under high rainfall regime of Andaman revealed that NH4+/NO3- ratio was more (3 times) during the incessant rainfall than dry spells.
  • Available P was 19 to 20% higher in termite soil compared to that P in the native soils. Microbial biomass P was 24 to 32% higher in termite soil compared to that Pin the native soils.
Silvipasture system: effect of fertilizer and cutting on nut primary production (herbage production) in humid tropical climate of bay island
  • The islands have no regular and sufficient supply of fodder is the major constraint in livestock development. For this, For this, silvi-pasture system was evaluated with three grasses namely, para (Brachiaria mutica), guinea (Panicum maximum), hybrid napier (Panicum purpurium) with three nitrogen levels in three tree canopies.
  • Among the grasses, the guinea grass (209.2 t ha-1) performed well followed by para grass (193.7 t ha-1). The highest mean herbage yield was recorded with application of 40kg N ha-1 (105.0 t ha-1) under open condition while applications of 60 kg N ha-1 produced highest herbage yield under and between canopies.
  • The tree canopy significantly influenced the performance of fodder grasses (173.9 t ha-1 under Trema tomentaosa canopy) while minimum from open condition (151.1 t ha-1).
Role of Alley Cropping System in Nutrient Conservation (nutrient build up + protection of fine soil particles from erosion) and Selection of Suitable Crop Sequence for the Cropping System for the Andaman Islands
  • The growth and yield attributing parameters were significantly influenced by the Gliricidia leaf biomass incorporation at 45 DAS and at harvest stage in grain amaranthus.
  • Application of 7.5 t ha-1 Gliricidia pruned leaf biomass in the alley cropping system is optimum to achieve higher yield of grain amaranthus.
  • The incorporation of 10 t ha-1 Gliricidia leaf pruning registered the increase in available NPK content of the soil to the tune of 9.8 kg, 2 kg and 6.2 kg ha-1, respectively.
Germplasm collection, evaluation and identification of high yielding genotypes of Jatropha and Karanja and their multiplication in bay islands (ongoing)
  • Identified pulse trees of Jatropha curcus (37), J. gossypifolia (6), J. multifida (6) and Pongamia pinnata (25) in South Andaman.
  • Got IC No. for seven accessions of Pongamia pinnata and submitted two accessions of each Jatropha and karanj to national trial.

Technology developed

  • Raised bed technology for vegetable cultivation (2005-06)
  • Round the year production of pineapple (1998-2002)
  • Plantation based inter and mixed cropping system (1990-2005)
  • Agro-techniques for potential horticultural crops includes leafy vegetables, marigold, tuberose, crossandra, papaya, sweet potato, elephant foot yam, cassava, black pepper, chinnamon, nutmeg and noni (1992-2008)
  • Soil mount technique for Noni cultivation in saline lands (2005-08)
  • ‘Rainshelter cauliflower’ technology (2008-12)
  • Technology for cultivation of ‘export quality poi’ (2010-12)
  • Noni cultivation in coconut and arecanut plantations (2008-11)
  • Value added and fortified products/processes like biscuits, pickle, squash etc. (2005-12)
  • Orchid cultivation in coconut husk for landless households (2006)
  • Developed production technology for Anthurium growing in pots (2009-10)
  • Growing media for Green orchid cultivation (2006-07)
  • Production technology for West Indian Cherry cultivation (2005-06)
  • Production technology of tuberose for Andaman (204-05)
  • Production technology of Marigold (2004-05)
  • Production technology of Gladiolus (204-05)
  • Production technology of Crossandra (2004-05)

Varieties released/developed

  • Coconut : CARI – Annapurna, CARI – Surya, CARI – Omkar and CARI – Chandan
  • Arecanut: CARI-Samrudhi
  • Sweet Potato: CARI – Swarna and CARI – Aparna
  • Greater Yam: CARI – Yamini
  • Broad Dhaniya: CARI-Broad Dhaniya
  • Ground Orchid : CARI-Pretty Green Bay
  • Noni: CARI-Sanjivni, CARI-Sampada, CARI – Rakshak and CARI- Samridhi

Registrations

  • Indigenous orchids Eulophia andamanensis (2001) INGR No.03041
  • Indigenous Wild mango Mangifera griffithi (2004) INGR No.04060
  • Indigenous Wild-mango Mangifera andamanica(2004) INGR No.04122
  • Noni (Morinda citrifolia) (2005) INGR No.05028
  • Wild cashew nut, Semicarpus kurzii (2006) INGR No.06022
  • Alligator apple. (2011) INGR No.AG01
  • CARI Brinjal -1 (2012).
  • IC No.- 140 germplasms

Extension/ Outreach programmes/ Activities

Extension activities

  • Trainings- 2008 (2), 2009 (3), 2010 (3), 2011 (3), 2012 (3)
  • OFTs – 2008 (2), 2009 (2), 2010 (3), 2011 (3), 2012 (4)
  • FLDs – 2008 (2), 2009 (2), 2010 (3), 2011 (2), 2012 (8)

National Seminar/ Sammellan

  • Brainstorming session on Horticulture development in Islands- a road map, 2-3 Dec., 2007.)
  • Tree Spices cultivation and sustainable development of homegardens, 4-6th Feb 208.
  • Noni Kissan Sammelan, 2009)
  • National Seminar on Production System Management in Adverse Conditions for Higher Productivity in A&N Islands, 22-24 Dec., 2009.
  • National Workshop cum Seminar on Status and Future strategies for Horticulture Development in A& N Islands’ 23-25 Jan 2009.
  • National Seminar on Technologies for Improving Productivity of spices and plantation crops, 27-29 Feb., 2012.
  • National Seminar on Innovative Technologies for Conservation and sustainable utilization of Island Biodiversity, 20-22 Dec., 2012.