Research Acheivements

Divisions & Section

  1. Natural Resource Management
  2. Horticulture & Forestry
  3. Field Crop Improvement and Protection
  4. Animal Science
  5. Fisheries Science
  6. Social Science

Natural Resource Management

  • Silpaulin and geo-membrane are found as suitable lining materials for effectively controlling the seepage losses from the farm pond. However, lining material should be covered with suitable material for protection from higher daily insolation in A&N islands located close to equator for increased life. A new technique for lining of the tank with plastic film and reinforced plaster (1:6) on sides and 15 cm thick soil layer at bottom for higher life period has been evolved.
  • Water balance analysis in terms of water resource potential, realizable potential water requirement and water resource development was estimated for Kaju Nallah watershed. Based on monthly well recuperation test, it is recommended that the recharge structure cum-well system should be developed in valley areas, where longitudinal slope of nallah is less, to get significantly enhanced and consistent well yield during the dry season.
  • On the basis of pH, EC, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable bases, soil acidity, base saturation percent, available nutrient contents and fertility constraints for crop production, fertility capability classification were made for rice growing areas of South Andaman. Poor drainage during monsoon and Aluminum toxicity are the major constrain for crop production. Soil fertility map for North, Middle and South Andaman Islands have been developed for further soil resource planning.
  • Assessment of tsunami affected soils and water in the post tsunami period (2005-2009) revealed that the temporal and spatial variability in soil pH, electrical conductivity and microbial loads are approaching towards normal pre tsunami condition due to the leaching of excess soluble salts by monsoon rainfall.
  • Application of different organic amendments increased the soil pH relative to control. The relative liming efficiency was highest for poultry manure and least for coconut husk used alone. The RLE was found to be highest between 120 to 150 days of application.
  • The net productivity and return analysis of application of different manures and fertilizer levels on Okra yield indicated that at moderate input supply inorganic + vermicompost @ 75 % recommended dose gave higher return. Similarly, under only organic input supply vermicompost + poultry manure @ 75% recommended dose was found to be best combination.
  • Integrated farming systems tested for different micro-farming situations revealed better socio-economic prospect in terms of high net returns and employment generation. In case of integration of fish-cum-poultry-cum-duckery in the farming system, pond water should not be used for house hold purposes as microbial load increases substantially during summer season. No mortality was observed when introduced gradually to saline water of different concentrations up to 15 ppt. On an average, net return of Rs 25600 can be obtained from fresh water based farming system in which animal and crop component contributed 92% and 6%, respectively under on-farm condition. Similarly, in brackish water based system, animal component contributed 97% towards the net returns.
  • Adoption of Broad Bed and Furrow (BBF) system provides opportunity for crop diversification in low lying paddy lands. Higher net return can be realized by growing radish-chillies on the beds and rice-ratoon (azolla + fish: singhi + magur)-groundnut in the furrows. Cropping intensity of rice areas can be increased from 100 % to 300-500 % on the beds and up to 300 % on the furrows through BBF system.
  • SRI method led to significantly higher yield (2613 kg ha-1) than conventional method (2400 kg ha-1) apart from saving of seed and planting time. SRI method of planting was found to be economical in terms of energy compared to line and mechanical transplanting as energy ratio was more (3.9).
  • Bold seeded groundnut varieties (SG 99, ICGS 76, TG 37A and GPBD 4) can be grown as profitable crop in rice fallow areas. Sowing of SG 99 or ICGS 76 of varieties of table purpose groundnut is recommended by manual line sowing during last week of December to first week of January. Net return of Rs. 56000/ha can be obtained in rice fallow lands having sandy or sandy loam soils. Further, two irrigations at life and pegging with paddy straw mulch on 45 DAS can be advocated for realizing higher pod yield, net returns, B:C ratio and water productivity. More than two irrigations leads to reduced pod yield.
  • Seed production of table purpose groundnut can be taken up profitably in coconut plantation during wet season. Application of 10 t ha-1 of FYM with ICGS76 or TG37A variety is found suitable for higher kernel seed yield. Around 62% higher kernel seed yield can be obtained in younger plantations than old plantations (>10 years).
  • Supplemental irrigation at knee high, tassel initiation and grain filling stages of maize, flowering, pod setting stages of green gram, 4-5 leaf stage, flowering, pod setting stages of sesamum, early vegetative, flowering, fruit formation stages of ladies finger and chilli were identified to achieve higher yield and profitability during post-monsoon season.
  • Kalmegh should be grown during summer season under irrigated condition with 45 x 30 cm spacing along with basal application of FYM @12.5 t ha-1 to achieve higher biomass yield and net returns under Island conditions.
  • A modified greenhouse was developed with 60% reduced cost towards two-exhaust fans, shading nets, cooling system and humidity control system that maintained inside temperature (1oC higher) and relative humidity (23% lower) than existing greenhouse resulting in saving of energy and water.
  • The capacity of CIARI pedal operated, KAU hand operated coconut dehuskers and local tool sabbal was 119, 68 and 170 nuts/hr, respectively. Even farm women found CIARI pedal operated dehusker comfortable and safe in operation.
  • Solar dryer made using local materials saved 33% time in comparison to open sun drying of coconut, black pepper, mushroom, green chillies, jack fruit pulp and fish.  It also improved the quality of dried products as there were no attack of maggot and insect pest.
  • Ventilation area of more than 12% of polyhouse area is to be kept for maintaining the temperature inside the poly house. Spacing of 60 X 60 cm can be recommended for capsicum under polyhouse conditions in bay islands to realize higher yield. High value crops such as cauliflower, capsicum and lettuce can be recommended for higher yield and returns from the investment made for polyhouse.
  • Water balance approach was used to design the optimal size of lined tank fed from impermeable rooftop or plastic mulched vegetable area. In case of 50 m2 rooftop area to harvest rainwater in lined tank, 361 cu m and 322 cu m capacity tank can provide supplemental irrigation at IW/CPE ratio 0.5 to 18 coconut plants or 160 arecanut plants in 1000 m2 in 8 out of 10 years during the dry period. In case of plastic mulched area of 1000 m2 to harvest rainwater, 290 cu m capacity tank can provide supplemental irrigation at IW/CPE ratio 0.5 in the same area with 2778 capsicum plants.
  • Out of 60 plant samples tested 23.0 % of the samples were detected with pesticide residues. Among the OC compounds, α endosulfan, β endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate were detected in 7 % of samples which were found in cabbage, bhendi and French bean samples. The residues of SP compounds such as α-cypermethrin and λ-cyhalothrin were detected in 12% of samples tested. The residues of OP compounds such as profenophos, chlorpyriphos, monocrotophos and triazophos were found in 12% samples which were found in brinjal, cauliflower, bhendi, green chilli and French bean samples. Off the positive samples detected 14 % of the samples were found to contain residues exceeding the prescribed MRL. The highest concentrations of pesticide residues were found in soils under vegetable cultivation (up to 54.190 µg kg-1 soil) followed by fallow lands which were earlier under rice or vegetable cultivation (up to 13.38 µg kg-1 soil).
  • Verification of forecasted and observed values of rainfall under Agromet weekly advisories for A&N Islands revealed that on an average forecasted and observed values of rainfall are matching to the tune of 53.7 % during post monsoon period while it is only 23.4 % for monsoon period.

Horticulture & Forestry

Varietal Evaluation and Standardization of Agro techniques in Tropical Fruits:

  • Eighteen mango clones (Mangifera indica Linn.) including fourteen from Andaman and four from Tamil Nadu were examined for genetic diversity using 60 RAPD primers.
  • Biochemical Characterization on flowering behaviour of wild mangoes of Bay Islands were done.
  • Four local accessions of papaya were collected for their yield and were evaluated. The local accessions GL-1 and GL-2 exhibited higher yield and quality characters when compared with the mainland collections.
  • Biochemical and molecular characterization of Musa sp.in Bay Islands were done. The cultivated bananas are collected from different locations (CIARI germplasm block and villages of South Andaman).

Improvement and Standardization of Agrotechniques of vegetable crops:

  • Thirteen varieties of Cowpea were evaluated. Among the varieties, Sweta (pole type) recorded the highest yield of 112.6 q/ha followed by Indira Hari (bush type), which recorded the yield of 107.5 q/ha.
  • Eleven varieties of French beans were evaluated. Among the varieties Contender, IIHR-909 and Arka Anoop were found to be promising one for Island conditions, which recorded the yield of 116,112.5 and 96 q/ha respectively.
  • Twenty eight varieties of chillies were evaluated and only eight varieties were retained for study. The variety LCA-353 was promising with a Twenty eight varieties were evaluated and only eight varieties
  • Evaluation of six varieties of cowpea revealed that among the varieties tested, the variety VRCP-5 recorded the highest yield of 54.2 q/ha followed by VRCP-6 (36.8q/ha)
  • Out  of thirteen varieties of French bean tested, the variety Arka Anoop was  found superior to  all other entries with the yield of 102.73 q/ha , maximum number of pods per plant (30.1 no) and highest weight of ten pods (104.4 gm) followed by Swarna  Lata (91.22q/ha).

Improvement of coconut and arecanut:

  • Morphological and yield parameters recorded on arecanut varieties (20 yr old) revealed that the variety Samrudhi recorded the highest number of nuts (815 nos.)  per tree followed by Mangala (614 nos.)The dry weight of challi/nut was also highest in Samrudhi (3.50g) whereas the variety Cal-31 recorded the least weight of challi (2.3g).
  • Evaluation and variability analysis (Morphological and molecular ) of coconut has been done.
  • Four dwarf lines viz., CARI-C-1(CARI-Annapurna), CARI-C-2 (CARI-Surya), CARI-C-3 (CARI-Omkar) and CARI-C-4 (CARI-Chandan) were submitted to State Variety Release Committee for release.
  • A high yielding Arecanut selection (CARI-Sel-1) was made from the local materials from South Andaman.

Tree- soil-Crop Interactions in Agroforestry Practices in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands:

  • The study of soil N mineralization under high rainfall regime of Andaman was done across the land use systems, NH4+/NO3- ratio during the incessant rainfall was found more than 3 times higher compared to that during the dry spells. Microbial biomass C, ranging from -18 to 803 µg g-1 in the moist evergreen forest,-11 to 786 µg g-1 in semi-evergreen forest and -22 to 786 µg g-1 in home garden, differed significantly due to the rainfall conditions (P<0.0001).The available phosphorus as well as microbial biomass P varied  due to the land use systems. Available P was 19 to 20% higher in termite soil compared to that bin the native soils. Microbial biomass P was 24to 32% higher in termite soil compared to that bin the native soils.

Introduction and Evaluation of Exotic and Less Known Indigenous Fruit crops

  • Seed sowing and germination studies (monthly intervals), assessment of specific gravity and physiological loss weight studies of Morinda citrifolia collected from different accessions were done. The seedlings MEM-3 and GAH-1 germinated within 5 days whereas HD-6 and PBAY-7 germinated in 19-20 days. Maximum specific gravity (1.42) from HD-6 accession and minimum (1.12) from SPG-2 accession was recorded in mature fruits. Maximum shelf life of mature fruits lasted for 9 days (GAH-1, SPG-2, MEM-3 and PBAY-7 accession) followed by 7 days (WAND-4, JHG-5 and HD-6 accession).

Standardization of agrotechnique for organic black pepper cultivation in Andaman and Nicobar islands

  • To standardize the agro-techniques for organic cultivation of black pepper,  about 364 black pepper cuttings (2- yr old) (Panniyur 1) were planted on the standards of Gliricidia as an intercrop of coconut at Sipighat farm. Spacing of coconut is 7.5 x 7.5m, and either clove or nutmeg is planted in the centre of four coconut trees at 7.5 x 7.5 m spacing. Black pepper is planted on Gliricidia standards between rows of coconut trees.  These way two models: coconut- clove- black pepper and coconut- nutmeg- black pepper are developed, which are suitable for Andaman and Nicobar islands.N, P, and K requirement of Coconut– Clove– Black pepper plantation were estimated based on the litter production and biomass decomposition.
  • Similarly, leaf litter and Gliricidia pruning biomass together was found to produce 151 kg ha-1yr-1 N, 11kg ha-1yr-1 P and 158kg ha-1yr-1 K in coconut- nutmeg- black pepper model. However, requirement of the trees was: 226 kg ha-1yr-1 N, 129kg ha-1yr-1 P and 408kg ha-1yr-1 K. Additional requirement (75kg ha-1 N, 117kg ha-1 P and 251kg ha-1 K) of the trees might be met out by 112 t ha-1yr-1 cow dung. But, this value may change during subsequent years. Therefore, real production of Gliricidia pruning biomass in both the models could be obtained only when growth in black pepper vines and berry production are stabilized. Therefore, a long term study is required to suggest package of practice of organic black pepper cultivation under a coconut plantation.

Standardization of Technologies for Protected Cultivation of Vegetable Crops under A & N Conditions

  • Six varieties of tomato were evaluated under poly house, out of 16 tested, only  two highest yield was recorded from G 600 (79.47 t/ha) followed by Arka Vikash (70.17t/ha).
  • Out of seven varieties of capsicum tested, The highest marketable yield was recorded from Indra (47.63t/ha) followed by California Wonder (38.66t/ha).

Silvipasture system: effect of fertilizer and cutting on nut primary production (herbage production) in humid tropical climate of bay islands

  • Coconut based silvipasture system was evaluated at Sipighat farm with three grasses para (Brachiaria mutica) guinea grasses (Panicum maximum) and hybrid napier (Panicum purpurium) in three different situations between canopy, under canopy and open condition with three different levels (20, 40, 60 kg/ha) of nitrogen. Three grasses were grown under existing coconut trees planted at 7.5 x 7.5 m distance. Herbage production recorded in all the grasses declined at the both canopy positions compared to open and the similar trend was also recorded in the previous year. Herbage production was highest with the increased dose of N. Para grass resulted in higher herbage production followed by guinea grass both under and between canopy with a fertilizer dose of 40 and 60kg/ha. However, there was not much variation in the yield with the application of N at 60 kg/ha so application of 40 kgN/ha for para grass is optimum to achieve desirable yield. Under open condition hybrid Napier resulted maximum herbage yield compared to the other grasses which indicates its suitability.
  • Four indigenous fodder trees (Grewia glabra, Mussaenda macrophylla, Treama tomentosa and Euphorbia spp) were identified in the natural forest and three fodder grasses (Guinea, Para and Ischaemum rubosum) were selected for developing the sivipasture system under natural forest condition. The fresh and dry biomass production was highest in Para grass (10.8, 4.4t/ha respectively) followed by Guinea grass where as the indigenous grass recorded the least biomass production.

All India Coordinated Research Project on Tuber Crops

  • Germplasm collection trips were conducted in Hut Bay, Car Nicobar and NorthAndaman Islands. Colocasia accessions were collected from Middle Andaman, Little Andaman and Car Niobar while Dioscorea bulbifera germplasm was collected from Little Andaman. New accessions collected were of Greater yam (1), Colocasia (3) and Aerial yam (1) which are being multiplied in Germplasm Block at CIARI. With addition of these five new accessions a total of 36 genotypes of tuber crops are being maintained in the germplasm pool. Presentation with complete descriptors has been made for release of two varieties of Sweet Potato (CARI-SP-1 and CARI SP- 2) for releasing at state level. Field demonstrations were conducted at farmer’s field in South Andaman and North Andaman in 2009-10. Three thousand cuttings of sweet potato and 150 kg yam planting materials of elephant foot were distributed to 25 farmers in April 2009.

All India Coordinated Research Project on Vegetable Crops

  • Under AICRP (VC) trials, VRCP-6 and Arka Garima of cowpea, DWD-FB-1 of French bean, IIVR Sem-8 and IIVR Sem-11 of Dolichos bean, PB-70  and BS-54 of brinjal and Arka Vikash of tomato were found promising in Island conditions.

Standardization of Micro-Propagation Techniques for Potential Orchids and Ferns of A & N Islands

  • Different explants viz. leaf bits, suckers and spores were tried with different media and different concentration of hormones for each explants. Callus production was observed from leaf bits inoculated with MS + 2, 4- D 2 mg/lt. Spores were germinated in media containing MS+BAP+ Charcoal. The germinated spores and callus were transferred to  multiplication media and the trial is in progress

Standardization of Technology for Production of Quality Flowers Under Island Ecosystem

  • Fifteen varieties of gerbera viz., Marinilla, Pia, Province, Antonio, Villssar, Ravel, Lorca, Galileo, Loriana, Teresa, Judy, Manizales, Figaro, Palmira and Sonata were collected from Bangalore. Among the varieties, Maximum stalk length of 73.10 cm was recorded in Palmira. Manizales recorded maximum no. of flowers (40 flowers/plant/season) followed by Sonata (35 flowers/ plant/season).

National Network Project on Underutilized Fruits

  • Seven accessions each of mangosteen, durian and rambutan were collected from Regional station, IIHR, Chettali and Horticulture farm of Kallar and Burliar from Tamil Nadu and introduced in the field gene bank established at Garacharma farm. Two accessions of avocado and one accession each of longan, Garcinia and passion fruit were also collected from diverse sources and introduced.
  • The germination percent was highest in Passion fruit (55%), followed by Mangosteen (45%) and Avocado (40%) with least in Rambutan (25%). The minimum time for germination.
  • Physico-chemical characteristics of mangosteen, rambutan and passion fruit were analysed .Among the fruits, maximum TSS content was recorded in mangosteen (19.6 0 Brix) followed by rambutan (19.6 0 Brix). Highest percent of juice (28.93 %) and acidity (1.80 %) was recorded in passion fruit.

Collection, Conservation, Characterization and Identification of Superior Clones of Morinda Citrifolia

  • The accession with different phenotypic characteristics were collected and 14  germplasm each from Morinda citrifolia and Morinda trimera has been submitted for getting IC nos. at NBPGR, New Delhi. Out of 811 bands, 335 bands were polymorphic. The study showed 41% polymorphism among the 14 accessions of Morinda citrifolia. The result indicated that despite of their morphological identity, substantial polymorphism was observed among Morinda citrifolia accessions collected from different Islands.

Role of Alley Cropping System in Nutrient Conservation (nutrient build up + protection of fine soil particles from erosion) and Selection of Suitable Crop Sequence for the Cropping System for the Andaman Islands

  • An experiment was conducted in randomized block design with 5 treatments and 4 replications to evaluate the performance of grain amaranthus in alley cropping system during the post monsoon period. The treatments comprised of incorporation of Gliricidia pruned leaf biomass @ 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 t ha-1 along with control. The growth and yield attributing parameters were significantly influenced by the Gliricidia leaf biomass incorporation at 45 DAS and at harvest stage in grain amaranthus. The highest yield (770.2kg ha-1) was recorded with the incorporation of 10 t ha-1 pruned biomass in the alley cropping system followed by incorporation of 7.5 t ha-1 which recorded a yield of 763.2 t ha-1. However, both the treatments were on par with each other and significantly higher as compared to incorporation of 2.5 t ha-1 and no incorporation (control). This indicates that application of 7.5 t ha-1 Gliricidia pruned leaf biomass in the alley cropping system is optimum to achieve higher yield of grain amaranthus.  The incorporation of 10 t ha-1 Gliricidia leaf pruning registered the increase in available NPK content of the soil to the tune of 9.8 kg, 2 kg and 6.2 kg ha-1, respectively.

Germplasm Collection, Evaluation and Identification of High Yielding Genotypes of Jatropha and Karanja and their Multiplication in Bay Islands (NOVOD)

  • In South and Middle Andaman, Jatropha species namely J. curcas (50%) were found more when compared to other species such as J. gossypifolia (20%) J. Podogirica (10%) and J. multifida (10%), covering the land from wet to dry in the island J. curcas generally grown as live fence and also observed in waste land and in the same area J. gossypifolia were also observed. J. multifida was very rarely seen in some houses as ornamental plant. Pongamia pinnata (20%) was mostly found in seashore and Tsunami affected areas of South, Middle and North Andaman Districts of Andaman. In South Andaman four candidate plus trees of Jatropha curcas, one for J. multifida and two for J. gossypifolia  were selected from Jirkatang.

Beachdera and Mazar pahad and J. curcas from Farargunj, Chouldari for J. multifida and Sippighat and Garacharma for J. gossypifolia

  • Two plus trees were identified in New Wandoor and Chidyatapu  The observation made on their fruiting and flowering pattern, the pod size, shape and number of seeds in candidate plus tree revealed that girth of the trees ranged from 62 and 79 cm while the pod size ranged from 6x 3.1cm and 6x3.7 cm. Seed size ranged from 2.2x1.9 cm to 2.1x1.7 cm respectively. The weight of hundred pods from each tree was taken which was 1.341kg while the weight of hundred seeds was 0.396 kg. In Havelock two plus trees were identified. The observations recorded in the tree at Vijaynagar village of Havelock revealed the girth of tree as 152 cm with pod size of 8x3.7 cm, seed size measuring 2.5x2 cm, and hundred pods weighed 775.5g with weight of hundred seeds of 359.29g. Another tree was observed near Radhanagar beach area, Havelock with a girth of 57 cm. The size of the pods was 7x3 cm and the seed size was 2.5x1.6 cm. Weight of hundred pods and seeds were taken which measured 1.715kg and 0. 581 kg, respectively

Field Crops Improvements and Protection

Rice

  • A very early rice line (ANR-1) with 100 days maturity was found quite promising under AICRP trials. It is short statured (90-100cm), with 7 -8 effective tillers’, good panicle length (25 cm), medium bold grains with 4.0 to 4.5 tha-1   yield under rain fed lowland conditions.
  • Three hundred and nine accessions of various early rice cultivars from IRRI were evaluated. Karjat-3 (6.88t/ha) and IR-69716-87-1-3-1-3 (5.94 t/ha) were found most promising
  • The rice hybrids such as PA 6444, JKRH 2000, PSD 3 and Suruchi were found to be high yielding.
  • Five medium duration (110-120 days) low land rice varieties viz. CARI Dhan-1, CARI Dhan-2, CARI Dhan-3, CARI Dhan-4 and CARI Dhan-5 were released with average yield of 5.2-5.4 t/ha in Bay Island conditions. Moreover, varieties CARI Dhan-4 and CARI Dhan-5 are also suitable for saline soil with yield of 3.0-3.5t/ha.
  • Twenty eight improved lines of rice were analyzed for quality characters. High hulling percent was recorded for UPR 1201-1-201 (82.06) and Karjat-3 (81.83%). These lines were found to have long and cylindrical grains with cooked rice grain elongated between 0.33 to 1.33%.
  • Evaluation of eighty long duration rice improved lines/genotypes indicated that six cultures viz., CB-05-022, Jagnath, MTU-1075, Urvashi, Rolagalakullu and Ramchand were found significantly better than CARI Dhan-5. A total of 13  genotypes, Amalmana, CB-05-156, CSR-4, DRR-1418, MTU-4870, CSR 36,MTU-1001, Lunishree, IM 1536, DRR 1501, Canning 7, Indravati  and Rambha showed resistance against multiple biotic stresses of diseases/insects. In long duration rice trial, maximum yield was recorded by Jagabandhu (4.49 tha-1), MTU. 2067 (4.39 tha-1) and MTU-1075 (4.32 tha-1).

Pulses & Oil

  • Ten promising varieties of green gram were evaluated for yield. Varieties in black gram IPM-062. Puna-9072, MH-124 and Pusa-0771 were found most promising with yield range of 0.18 to 0.29 t/ha. Varieties CBG-647 and TU 17-14 were found most promising with average yield of 0.81 and 0.77 q/ha respectively.
  • Twenty six sesame varieties were evaluated in Rabi season and variety PBS 9, PBS 18, PBS 17 and PBS 19 were found promising with yield potential of 1.09 to 1.41 t/ha.
  • Sixteen improved lines of green gram and 28 lines of black gram were evaluated during Rabi season. Six and seven high yielding varieties respectively of green gram and black gram have been identified for further confirmation.

Agriculture Important Microbes

  • A total of 273 agriculturally important micro organisms were isolated from the hot humid coastal agro eco system of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Among the total isolates 194 antagonistic rhizobacteria, 22 mycoparasitic fungi, 20 fungal pathogens and 25 bacterial pathogens were found to be associated with vegetable and spice crops.
  • A total 128 bacterial isolates were studied for their antagonistic activity against Sclerotium rolfsii, Collectotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici and plant growth promoting properties viz., IAA production, phosphate solublization and siderophore production. Out of these, 40 were identified as Bacillus spp. and 15 as Pseudomonas spp.
  • Performance of five fungal antagonists selected by in-vitro screening were evaluated in field trial, T. harzianum1 and T. hamatum 1 were found effective in controlling major diseases of chilly and brinjal.
  • In vitro screened 8 effective isolates of PGPRs were evaluated in field trial, Pseudomonas spp.  and Bacillus spp. were found effective in controlling major diseases of chilly.
  • Trichoderma hazarianum and Trichoderma hamatum 1 were found to be effective against soil borne disease of solanaceous vegetables.
  • The Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria like C26 and BBI were found effective in controlling damping off, root rot, leaf spot and wilt in tomato.
  • All isolates of Trichoderma spp. from rhizopshere soil of black pepper were very effective in suppression of mycilial growth of P. capsici and C. capsici.
  • The antagonistic bacterial isolates BB14, BL5 and BS1 inhibit both S. rolfsii and C. capsici. Isolates BB6, BR4, BR5, BR6, BR7, BR9 and BR6 inhibited more than 50% mycilial growth of C. capsici. PfR13 had strong phosphate and siderophore production property. PSN1 and PfB16 and BR7, BL5, BL6 and BS1 have strong phosphate solublization and siderophore production property respectively. Isolates PfC3 and BSN 3 produced more than 50ug / ml IAA and isolates BSDI, BC6, BM16, BM17, BM1, BM18, BSP2 showed 31-49ug/ml IAA production.
  • Antagonistic potential of 14 Trichoderma spp. were screened against S. rolfsii, C. gloeosporioides and C. capsici and found that isolate TSD 1 inhibited all the pathogens tested. TGD1, TND1, TGN1, TWN1, TMP1, TWC2 and TJP1 inhibited two pathogens significantly.
  • Fourteen isolates of Trichoderma were evaluated against P. capsici and C. capsici causing foot rot and anthracnose disease in Black pepper by dual culture test. Highest percent inhibition of P. capsici was recorded with Tv-CARI-27 whereas C. capsici was most parasitized with Tv-CARI-27.
  • Fourteen isolates of Trichoderma were evaluated against P. capsici and C. capsici by production of non-volatile antibiotics, Tv-CARI-26 and Tv-CARI-33 were found most effective against P. capsici and C. capsici, respcectively.

Pest & Diseases

  • Surveys of major vegetable growing areas of South Andaman revealed presence of 26 diseases in 13 vegetable crops belonging to four families. Highest disease severity and incidence were leaf spot of snake gourd/little gourd, wilt of brinjal, frog eye spot of chilly and leaf curl of tomato during rainy season.
  • Isolated and partially characterized 25 Ralstonia spp. associated with wilt of tomato, brinjal, chilly crops and their pathogenicity was assessed in the glass conditions.
  • Survey of pest and disease of black pepper revealed that foot rot (Phytophthora capsici) and pollu beetle (Longitarsus nigripennis) were most important disease and pest, respectively.
  • Of 375 lines of rice screened against major disease and insects under natural field conditions, 29 lines were found tolerant to insects and diseases.
  • The maximum Gundhi bug incidence was recorded in late maturing lines followed by medium duration, but it was very low in very early, early and medium early lines. The study revealed that there was 44 to 49% yield reduction in medium and late duration lines as compared to early and medium varieties.
  • Survey data revealed that coconut, oil palm, brinjal and tomato are seriously affected by rodent infestations. It ranged from 8-26, 40-50 and 8-34 percent respectively in the Islands.
  • Two peaks in fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) population were observed viz., April (13.51/Trap/week) and December (16.94/trap/week). The study indicated that fruit flies were prevalent throughout the year and need proper management strategy accordingly.
  • Field survey revealed that the rodent infestation in coconut ranged from 2.5- 74.52% in Andaman. The nut damage ratio ranged from 4.16 to 6.25%. The average rodent infestation was 26.09% and average nut damage was 5.10%.
  • A total of 18 rodent sps were identified and reported. Out of these, 3 spp Little Indian Field Mouse (Mus booduga), Asian House Rat (Rattus tanezumi andamanenesis) and Cutch rock-rat (Cremnomys cutchicus) are newly recorded spp.
  • The high intensity of Rhinoceros beetle infestations in coconut palms was noticed all over the South, Middle and North Andaman. The pest incidence ranged from 0.5 to 41.32%. Infestation of the scale insect was low compared to Rhinoceros beetle. High intensity of scale insect was recorded in Andaman Plantations (Meethakhadi) of South Andaman (9.46%).
  • High intensity of bud rot disease of coconut was found in V. K. Pur of Little Andaman (31.25%) and stem bleeding was found in Krishna Nagar of Havelock Island (9.6%).

Integrated pest & disease management

  • The combination of biocontrol agents + chemical fungicides at relatively lower concentration + neem cake was very effective in management of disease complex of tomato.
  • Aqueous leaf extract of Syzgium aromaticum inhibited the growth and development of Spodoptera litura and affected the larval-pupal survival and adult emergence in a dose-dependent manner. It is clearly indicated that due to Syzygium aromaticum extracts intoxicated food, 90 per cent larvae died at early instars, hence the larval population could not reach the crucial late instars stage, which is could be responsible for crop damage.
  • Module consisting of combination of cultural practices, biocontrol agents and fungicides were most effective in percent reduction of disease incidence and increasing yield of tomato. The results also suggested that crop rotation with non host crop and intercropping with Burma dhania with tomato resulted into improved disease control and yield of tomato.
  • OFT trial on disease management of tomato revealed that seed treatment + seedling dip with copper oxychloride +soil application of the CARI-5 along with FYM and neem cake (5.0 kg/m2) + two sprays of neem oil (2%) was found most effective in percent reduction in disease incidences of bacterial wilt, leaf curl, basal stem rot and fusarial wilt of tomato in all five farmer’s field.
  • IPM module for pollu beetle showed that lowest percent berry damage and highest yield of black pepper was recorded in integrated module with pruning, soil application of neem cake and foliar spray of neembaan and quinalphos treatment as compared to other modules tested.
  • Out of 6 plants tested, Syzygium aromaticum, Amommum aculeatum and Morinda citrifolia were found effective against fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae as LC50 (Median lethal concentration) was 8.83, 10.67 and 10.85% respectively.

Biotechnology

  • 20 RAPD and ISSR markers were used to infer genetic similarity among 23 different samples of wild jamun. The dendrogram differentiated all the samples of wild jamun at 67% similarity with RAPD primers and 44% similarity with ISSR primers.
  • A total of 43 PGP bacterial isolates from banana and rice rhizosphere were characterized by PCR-RFLP using 7 different restriction enzymes. 16s rRNA gene sequencing and BLAST similarity search identified these isolates as Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp.
  • 15 antagonistic isolates of Trichoderma spp. were characterised by PCR-RFLP using 3 different restriction enzymes. rRNA gene sequencing and BLAST similarity search result identified these isolates as Trichoderma ovalisporum, Trichoderma viride andTrichoderma harzianum.
  • Regarding pesticide residues in vegetables, the sample of brinjal, okra, cauliflower, cabbage and green chilly collected from different parts of South Andaman including Chouldhari, Sitapur, Ramnagar and Humfrigunj showed moderate level of pesticide residues. Samples collected from Mayabundar showed no residue at all.
  • In mushroom, Calocybe indica gave 30-40% efficiency and Hipsyzygus ulmarius gave 40-50% biological efficiency on paddy straw. Both these mushroom spp. were found to be promising for cultivation in these Islands.

AnimalScience

Improvement, Evaluation & Propagation of Indigenous Nicobari fowl and Ducks

  • Dual purpose synthetic fowl Nishibari (White Nicobari X ILI 80) and Nicorock ( Black Nicobari X Black Rock) have been developed for backyard farming. Nishibari produces 160-170 eggs per year under backyard and Nicorock produces130-140 eggs per year with an average of 1 kg body weight at 12 weeks of age under backyard.
  • The reciprocal crosses of Andaman Duck x Khaki were produced and evaluated. The AEP of Khaki Campbell x Andaman ducks showed quiet increase (167) in number of egg production compared to local Andaman ducks (110). The Chara and Chemballi ducks produced 180 eggs / annum.
  • Evaluation of different crosses of ducks revealed that the cross of Pekin X Chara chembali performed better in terms of growth performance, feed utilization, survivability, performance index and production number. The cross may be reared for meat purpose under backyard system of rearing.

Adaptability and Productivity of Turkey and Guinea Fowl in Bay Islands

  • Turkey and Guinea fowl were introduced and found as potential birds for alternate poultry farming and got better adaptability and performance under island ecosystem.

Productive and reproductive performance in dairy cattle

  • Pattern of milk production during dry (January to April) and monsoon season (May to December) were studied for 16 years (years with 12 months production). Monthly milk production (Mean± SE) during dry season was lower (761.02±38.7 l) than the monsoon season (804.48±6.4 l). Number of cows on lactation during dry and monsoon season was 5.09±0.16 and 5.03±0.08 respectively. Average daily milk yield per cow during dry and monsoon season was 3.51±0.04 and 3.61±0.05 respectively. However no significant difference was found between dry and monsoon season. Similarly, calving pattern studies (1985 to 2007) during dry vs monsoon season revealed that no significant difference was observed on number of calving (10.25±3.3 vs 13.25±1.4), birth weight of male calf (19.97±0.8 vs 20.39±1.03 kg), birth weight of female calf (20.27±0.7 vs 20.34±0.5 kg) and calf mortality (2.75±0.8 vs 2.13±0.6 nos.) , respectively.
  • There was significant (P<0.05) influence of season (105.70±13.0 vs 139.12±6.5 lit) on average monthly milk production of individual cows during entire lactation. This could be directly or indirectly related to nutritional status i.e availability of sufficient green fodder resources and climatic conditions during monsoon season.
  • Lactation data of desi (17 lactations) and cross bred cows (72 lactations) for the past 22 years were analyzed. Productive performance (Mean±SE) of cross bred cows showed that there was significant difference (P< 0.01) observed between desi and cross bred cows on lactation yield (553.51±40.7 vs 1500.48±97.4 l.), lactation length (276.05±13.5 vs 361.63±16.5 days) average daily milk yield per lactation (2.01±0.1 vs 4.27±0.2), peak milk yield (3.85±0.5 vs 7.45±0.3 lit) and no significant difference was observed on no. of days to reach peak yield (8.6±2.4 vs 17.95±1.2). The order of lactation was also observed to influence the milk production potential of the individual cross bred cow.
  • The reproductive performance of cross bred cows showed that the age at first calving (n=13) and inter calving interval (n=18) was observed to be 1107.08±66.28 (days) and 515.88±25.74 (days) respectively. The birth weight (kg) of female calf (21.26±0.6, n=75) was significantly higher (P<0.01) than male calf (19.0±0.3, n=63).
  • Standardized technologies for controlled breeding for calving of cows in monsoon when sufficient green fodder is available. Veterinary ultrasonography was found to be the efficient diagnostic tool to study the pathophysiology of udder and ovarian status and pregnancy diagnosis in cattle.

Enhancement and sustainable dairy cattle and buffalo production in bay islands

  • Lactation performance of cross bred cows showed lactation length of 351.17±43.36 days with lactation yield of 1857.74±272.21 litre with a wet average of 5.5±0.7 litre. The peak yield of 8.88±0.95 litre reached at 27.17±4.33 days.
  • Exogenous calcium supplementation in lactating cows and supplementation in the form of feed pellets was an economical and effective source of calcium which significantly improved the milk production of lactating crossbred cows.
  • Transcutaneous ultrasonographic examination using modified water bath method allowed clear visualization of teat characteristics (teat canal length, diameter, teat wall thickness, teat length and thickness) than directly placing the probe. The present findings suggest that ultrasonography provides accurate features of bovine teat and udder characteristics in relation to health (lactation physiology) and disease.
  • Feeding of Morinda citrifolia fruit juice @ 100 ml daily to cattle reduced the pH, conductivity, and microbial load in the milk of mastitis affected cow. Medicinal plant Morinda citrifolia showed antioxidant properties by gradually increasing the SOD and catalase levels in blood of calves.

Productivity enhancement of pigs under islands ecosystem

  • The productive performance of the large white Yorkshire revealed that weaning of piglets at six weeks of age increases the productivity of sows compared to eight weeks of weaning.
  • Ultrasonographic evaluation of back fat thickness was observed to be 19.00 and 33.17 mm in young and adult pigs respectively. It is suggested that the process of fat deposition in young and adult pigs varies significantly and this method is found to be useful in characterizing the fat and muscle of indigenous and exotic pigs.
  • Reproductive performances of Large White Yorkshire pigs revealed that maize based diet was found the best when compared with the ration consist of colocasia, rice bran or broken rice /wheat based diet.
  • Supplementation of 80 ppm Zinc per day per piglet resulted significant (p<0.01) increase in body weight of weaned piglets. A floor space of 60 sq ft for a nursing sow was found better in terms of higher weaning body weight than 30 sq ft floor space.

Assessment of critical nutritional gap in Bay Islands

  • Survey in different parts of the Andaman Islands revealed that there is severe deficiency of nutrients available to cattle and buffalo as the availability of concentrate and green fodder is only 3461 MT and 600 MT annually against the requirement of 21546 and 218912 MT respectively.
  • The increasing interest of farmers in small livestock farming as compared to large animal farming was inferred as per analysis of the secondary data of 18th livestock census, 2007.
  • Island wise fodder and feed requirement for different livestock species was worked out. Requirement of green fodder was 1.37 lakh t/ annum while requirement of dry fodder was 0.66 lakh t/annum. Requirement of concentrates for livestock was only 1.23 lakh t/annum.

Evaluation and Utilization of Azolla as feed supplement for backyard poultry

  • Azolla was introduced as a feed supplement and their proximate composition rvealed that the moisture, crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract and total ash were found to be 4.92, 21.17, 4.60, 4.59 and 19.91per cent respectively and demonstrated that Azolla could be grown and cultivable under this island ecosystem and its nutritive value showed the feasibility of its utilization as a feed supplement for livestock and poultry. 
  • Replacement of 21.7% concentrated feed with fresh Azolla in quail did not show any adverse effect on egg production. Azolla supplementation (2-3%) by replacing commercial feed in growing quails up to the age of marketing saved the feed cost of 16 paise per quail and yielded better carcass percentage. Azolla was found to have an immunoenhancer effect in chicken when  supplemented with azolla at the rate of 40%.
  • Azolla supplementation to the grower duck at the rate of 50-100 gms per day saved 12.5% feed per duck and the feed cost of Rs.20 per duck up to the age of 10 weeks. Azolla supplementation (50 g per day per layer ) to the layer duck could replace 16.6% concentrated feed with savings in feed cost of Rs. 5.85 per bird per day.

Characterization of LHβ and FSHβ and their receptor genes in goat breeds of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

  • Follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone are heterodimer of a common alpha (a) subunit and a unique beta (b) subunit. The study was aimed to understand the molecular mechanism and the role of mutation in FSHβ and LHβ gene in goat fertility. The nucleotide variation in the exon 2 of Follicle Stimulating Hormone beta and exon1 & 2 of Luteinizing hormone beta gene in Local Andaman Goat was studied by PCR- SSCP (Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism).
  • FSHβ exon 2 (187 bp) variants have been identified for the first time in Local Andaman goats. Characterization of exon 2 & 3 of LHbeta gene in goat breeds of A&N islands viz. Teressa, Local Andaman and Malabari revealed two different variants through SSCP study.

Evaluation of therapeutic and immunomodulatory properties of Morinda citrifolia in poultry.

  • Supplementation of M. citrofolia extract enhanced the immuno response of poultry. Feeding of M.citrifolia crude fruit extract @ 5% in drinking water to Japanese quail enhanced the body weight gain and egg production performance and replacement of 20% concentrate feed with dried fruit granules of Morinda citrifolia enhanced the body weight gain in Japanese quail and better FCR at 5th week of age.
  • The chloroform and acetone extract of Morinda citrifolia leaf and fruit produced antibacterial activity against two different isolates of Ralstonia solanacearum; RSN 6 and RSN 12. The potential of the Morinda citrifolia extracts was found much better than most of the antibiotics and the same may be useful against the treatment of Ralstonia infection in plants.

Feasibility evaluation of growing fodder during pre paddy and post paddy period under rainfed conditions

  • Concept of utilizing the available moisture and shortage of cultivable land a pilot study was conducted to grow fodder in pre paddy and post paddy fields. The average production of maize, coix, cow pea and rice bean were 9.26, 4.94, 31.38 and 20.19 t/ha respectively. It was found that fodder crops can be taken as pre and post paddy crops successfully to augment the fodder supply to the livestock.

Productivity enhancement of goats in bay islands

  • The Andaman local goats were upgraded using exotic Boer goat and F1 showed higher body weight gain (20-40%) than the local goats. The productive and reproductive performance of the Andaman local goat and Boer cross revealed that the birth weight of both male and female kids of Boer cross was significantly (P<0.01) higher than Andaman local goat.
  • Composition of birth in goats revealed that the usual number of kids born at one time varied from single to twins, of which percentage of singles (53.33) were more frequent than twins (46.66). The overall birth weight of kids born as single and twins was 1.48±0.14 and 1.60±0.14 respectively. The carcass yield was significantly (p<0.01) higher in males (50.13±1.18) than females (41.36±0.98).
  • Controlled breeding technology using intra-vaginal sponges found as the means of facilitating planned breeding and to reduce the kidding interval in goats.
  • Ultrasonography using a water bath based approach resulted in a non-invasive, easy and simple method for breeding soundness or clinical examination of male goats.

Conservation and characterization of Nicobari pig

  • It is concluded that the Nicobari pigs are considered as an indigenous pig breed / germplasm (Sus scrofa Nicobaricus) belonging to this island territory. The phenotypic characters showed that the Nicobari pigs were indigenous to these islands and their existence was noted since many centuries.
  • The Nicobari pigs showed high prolificacy (litter size 8-10 nos. and less preweaning mortality). Castrated male and adult female showed higher body weight (100-150 kg). The pigs were reared and considered as family asset among the tribal. No commercial farms or sale of meat was practiced. However, tribes slaughter the pigs mostly during festive occasions and family/community gathering. Awareness programme on conservation of indigenous pig germplasm and training on scientific pig farming was given for the Tribal, tribal school children and island farmers. Tribal families were identified for maintaing /conserving the pig germplasm.

Studies on the status of mineral profile in Bovine of A & N Islands and its correlation to morbidity and production.

  • Micro and macro mineral status of water, soil, fodder and sera samples of dairy cattle from different village of South Andaman showed, that in the soil sample the overall Fe, Cu, and Mn were found higher than the critical level in all the season mainly the monsoon season. Fodder sample the level of macronutrients Mg, K and P was found to be lower their critical level except Ca and Na which were found within the normal range. The sera sample analysis of the cattle representing the each village suggests that the level of Mg, Na, K and Ca was found lower than normal value. Ca:P ratio of the cattle of the infertile zone was lower than the fertile zone.

Phenotypic and molecular characterization of indigenous goat of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

  • Significant differences in body weight and physical parameters among the goat breeds alongwith sexual dimorphism in Local Andaman, Teressa and Malabari goats were observed.
  • Microsatellite analysis of indigenous goats revealed that a total of 50 genotypes were observed across the 15 loci. The number of genotype varied between (MAF70; SRCRSP3) 1 and 6 (SRCRSP15). The effective number of alleles (Ne) varied from 2 to 6.98 in Teressa goat and 2 to 4.31 in local goats. All the values of FIS obtained for the Teressa and Andaman local goats were negative which is suggestive of no inbreeding within the populations and the animals were outbred. The mode-shift test indicated the genetic bottleneck in Teressa and Andaman Local goats and needs greater attention towards in situ/ex situ conservation.

Enhancement and sustainable dairy farming through reproductive health care

  • The major constraints encountered by the farmers were shortage of green fodder (96.0%), anoestrus and repeat breeding (94.0%), prolonged calving interval (90.0%), inadequate pricing for milk (90.0%), poor marketing facility for milk sale (80.0%), non availability of concentrates (60.0%), high tick infestation (50.0%), scarcity of water during dry season (30.0%) and lack of proper scientific knowledge (20.0%).
  • Technological interventions such as augmentation of reproductive performance of dairy cows through infertility management and controlled breeding programme, promotion of fodder cultivation, control of tick infestation and training on scientific dairy cattle management and post harvest processing of milk and preparation of traditional dairy products were implemented which could considerably increase the profitability of the farmers.

FisheriesScience

 

Coastal Bio-resources Management

 

  • The Nicobar group of Islands are highly vulnerable to climatic variation due to their flat topography, limited physical size and geographical isolation. Among the Nicobar Islands, Trinket and Chowra have over 15% of the total land area with an elevation less than 10m above MSL. The digital elevation data taken together with the population density of different islands in the Nicobar district showed that Chowra is the most vulnerable island to climate-associated disasters. The agricultural vulnerability map of Car Nicobar prepared based on multiple parameters indicated that about 20% of the area in Car Nicobar has high to very high vulnerability to climate change.
  • The projected changes in mean temperature and precipitation using the MAGICC/SCENGEN software indicate that the rainfall pattern is all set to change significantly (P<0.05) during different seasons and the pattern of change in Nicobar would be different from that in Andaman.
  • Under a collaborative project with Space Application Centre, Ahmedabad, contributed in determining the extent of coral reef area in A&N Islands (1021.5 sq.km). Species distribution in Marine National Parks (MNP) and popular dive sites have been documented.  Periodic surveys conducted to assess the reef health across different islands in Andaman indicated that the reefs suffered extensive bleaching (upto 70%) during May 2010 due to elevation of sea surface temperature. Anthropogenic disturbance of the reefs leading to polychaete infestations and reef mortality was also described.
  • Developed spectral signatures for different forms of corals and delineated their potential use for differentiation of coral forms and species in some cases through underwater radiometer surveys in Andaman.
  • The biodiversity of marine sponges from North Bay and Pongi Baalu has been documented. Altogether 51 marine sponges were collected and described through conventional taxonomy (17 of them are new locational records for India). Through a study on the bioactivity of marine sponges 10 sponges and 75 sponge associated bacteria with significant bioactivity were identified and characterized.
  • 34 true mangrove species belonging to 15 genera, 10 orders and 12 families have been documented and 25 species, one of which is a new locational record for the islands were fully described.
  • Trophic level productivity measurements within different areas, coral reefs, , mangroves, coastal and open sea have been done along with spatial and temporal patterns of different water quality parameters and their relation to aquatic fauna. The average gross and net primary productivity of Andaman coastal waters were found to be 298.33 and 115.27 mg C/m3/ha respectively.

 

Capture fisheries

 

  • Under a collaborative project with INCOIS, three Digital Display Boards have been installed in Andaman to disseminate details on fish availability, weather conditions and tsunami warning. The study showed that by following the Potential Fishing Zone (PFZ) advisories, the catch per unit effort (CPUE) shall be increased by 34% and scouting time shall be reduced by 51%. By following the PFZ advisories, an average increase of 30.37 ± 2.27%, 30.03 ± 2.15% and 23.80 ± 1.30% in total catch was observed by gillnetters, trawlers and longliners respectively. The cost benefit ratio for each class of vessel was 2.70 for gillnetters; 3.47 for trawlers and 3.26 for longliners against their respective control group of fishers (1.68, 1.50 and 1.81). A total of 60 PFZ awareness campaigns were held across the islands wherein over 600 fishers were sensitized.
  • A systematic analysis of landings of groupers and snappers in South Andaman revealed that the average annual catch per unit effort (CPUE) was 130 kg/boat, with maximum CPUE (186 kg/boat) being recorded in September, 2010. Among groupers, Epinephelus malabaricus and among snappers, Lutjanus gibbus were the predominant species. In case of Epinephelus malabaricus, major size classes of landings were found to be between 25-40 cm which indicates “growth overfishing” and the need for proper fishing regulation for sustainable harvest of the resource.

 

Aquaculture

 

  • The feasibility of cage culture of groupers in protected bays and creeks in Andaman was assessed using wild caught seeds. The grouper stocked at the size of 201.73 ± 27.57 mm and weight 90.06 ± 41.40 g recorded a growth of 79% in six months with 97% survival. The study demonstrated that the cannibalism and crab infestation in the cages can be checked through proper site selection and feeding management. The bottleneck for the adoption of the technology were issues related to seed supply, access to live fish market and logistics required for live fish trade.
  • An integrated mangrove-based agro- aqua farming system was developed at Sippighat Brackishwater Farm complex of CIARI and at a farmers’ field at Indira Nagar. More than 150 farmers were sensitized on the potential of mangrove-based aqua farming in the islands. Two farming system patterns- pond-based brackish and fresh water farming systems have been demonstrated to the island farmers.
  • The Cheekspine anemonefish, Premnas biaculeatus has been successfully bred in captivity and details of embryonic development from egg to hatchlings have been recorded. The larvae (3.724 ± 0.05 cm) after hatching were active swimmers and started feeding on rotifers after yolk absorption (12-24 h). The breeding technology has been included in the Micro-Business Module published by the institute. The major live feed supplement for damsels is the rotifers and their distribution and abundance (7 species) in the islands was explored and documented.
  • A catfish hatchery has been established at CIARI and the seed production and larval rearing technology of cat fish (Magur) has been standardized successfully with a survival of 60% under controlled conditions.
  • A study on the incidence of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in the wild stock of tiger shrimps in Andaman indicated that about 30% of the wild tiger shrimps are carriers of WSSV, the most devastating disease known to shrimp aquaculture.
  • An exhaustive survey on the tsunami affected areas was carried out delineating ideal areas for brackish water aquaculture in collaboration with CIBA, Chennai and A&N Administration under the aegis of Coastal Aquaculture Project Implementation Committee.

 

Freshwater aquaculture

  • Backyard hatchery for Freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) has been developed at CIARI. Seed were being produced in hatchery and regularly distributed to the farmers of South Andaman.
  • Magur hatchery has been set up for the first time in Andaman and Nicobar Island. Magur seed were produced and maintained at the newly constructed hatchery. In order to cater to the needs of catfish seeds in the Islands, a magur hatchery has been developed at CIARI. The cat fish larval development unit has been developed wherein breeding of magur has been carried-out successfully with a survival of 60% under controlled conditions.
  • Salinity tolerance study was also conducted in Clarias batrachus to explore the possibility of culturing them in slightly saline areas.  It was observed that fishes grow better at 0 ppt salinity.  Mortality rate of magur was highest at 8 ppt salinity (16.7%). Studies on biochemical parameters revealed that most of the parameters like ascorbic acid, blood glucose and liver glycogen levels were reduced drastically at 8ppt.

Brackishwater aquaculture

  • Post tsunami survey was conducted to identify the potentially cultivable area,   revealed that approximately 4000 ha areas of agricultural farmlands have been submerged, out of which 630.12 ha of area were suitable for coastal aquaculture purpose.
  • Growth studies of Liza tade was tried in different salinity and found that the overall growth was not very encouraging in this in the laboratory condition. Maximum growth in terms of weight gain was recorded at 15 ppt salinity followed by 10 ppt salinity.
  • Survey on mangrove area showed that 30-80% mangrove stands have got affected in South Andaman due to earthquake and tsunami during 2004. In Middle Andaman the impact is negligible whereas in North Andaman due to elevation of land, the seawater is not reaching some of the mangrove. Survey in Shoal Bay area of South Andaman indicated that Rhizophora apiculata account is the dominant species (43.6%) followed by  Rhizophora mucraonata  (15.0 %) and Ceriops tagal  (13.3%). Studies on mangroves in and around Shoal Bay and Porlob Jig under coastal zone studies was investigated and found that Rhizophora apiculata ( 27.35) was dominated in Shoal Bay area and Ceriops tagal ( 38.2%) in Porlob Jig.
  • An Integrated farming system based on brackish water aquaculture, incorporating components of horticulture, medicinal plants and poultry has been attempted. Tiger prawn seeds (PL-20) produced from Andaman mother shrimp at this institute. At the farmer field with zero management practice, tiger shrimp has been cultured and marketed.
  • Incidents or prevalence of white spot disease in Andaman waters was investigated through PCR. It was found that infection rate was 17.77% in 2007, and 36% in 2006. From the studies, it was found that infection rate of WSSV in tiger prawn Penaeus monodon and Banana prawn, Ferropenaeus merguensis in Andaman is mild.

Mariculture

  • Successfully completed cage culture experiment in Andaman waters.  From the study 79.17% growth rate within six months with 96.81% survival was achieved from the study. Successive culture experiments suggested that the cannibalism in the groupers could be checked by resorting to proper feeding.
  • Breeding techniques of damsel fish, Premnas biaculeatus has been successfully bred in captivity and details of embryonic development from egg to hatchlings were recorded and photographed. Live feed like rotifers have been used for feeding the fishes. The larvae after hatching were active swimmers and started feeding on rotifers after yolk absorption (12-24 h).
  • The brown algae, Nanochloropsis oculata was found to be a better feed than the green algae, Chlorella marina to the rotifers, which constitute the major live feed of marine ornamental fishes. The algal density required for maintaining the desired density of rotifers and copepods in the finfish hatchery was determined.
  • A total of 20 species of grouper and 5 species of snapper have been identified from landing centers. Efficacy of fish flesh, mussel meat, chicken waste and mixed feed (equal percentage of all other feeds) on Cephalopholis microprion has been tried and found that mussel meat gives the best result followed by fish flesh.

Resource assessment studies

  • A survey on the wild catch of Groupers and Snappers in various landing centres in South Andaman indicated that grouper landings are significant in Wandoor and Guptapara. Among groupers, Epinephelus malabaricus and among snappers, Lutijanus gibbus were the predominant species. A systematic analysis of landings of groupers and snappers in South Andaman revealed that the average annual catch per unit effort (CPUE) was 130 kg/boat, with maximum CPUE (186 kg/boat) being recorded in September, 2010.
  • Cataloguing of 42 species of ornamental reef fishes from North Bay area has been done. RAPD finger printing between freshwater and brackish water Tilapia species has been attempted and revealed typical cluster at 73% similarity level in the dendogram. It is evident that fishes are thriving in both the environments with a similar genetic makeup with a difference of only 6% as envisaged in the present sampling and primer usage.
  • Studies on the temporal variation in water quality parameters indicated that the primary productivity of Andaman waters progressively increased from June 2008 to Feb 2009. The average gross productivity, net productivity and respiration requirement were 321.1 , 125.6 mg C/ m3/ h and 12.8 mg C/ m3/ h respectively.
  • An exploratory survey on the habitat of top shell, Trochus sp indicated that its normal habitat consists of dead corals and algae (23.57%), dead corals (19.3%), live corals (19.5%), rock and rubbles (14.28%), sand (12.93%), soft corals (4.01%) and other components. Percentage distribution of, Trochus niloticus  species is more in Boat Island followed by Chidyatappu. T. niloticus is found in near shore areas as well as in the coral reefs areas.  Along with the Trochus sp various other gastropods and coral reef fishes are also recorded which in turn form a part of the habitat of T. niloticus.
  • PFZ advisories have proved to be a potential tool in harvesting under-exploited fishery resources with a significant increase (34%) in CPUE of fishing vessels in the A&N Islands. Validation experiments employing different vessels viz., gillnetters, trawlers and long liners showed an average increase in total catch of 37±1.8%, 34±1.24% and 30±1.36% respectively.

Cataloging and characterization of marine resources

  • The coral reef biodiversity and mangrove biodiversity of the A&N Islands were documented and a field guide for the identification of mangroves of A&N Islands has been published.
  • To study the distribution and abundance of corals of Andaman, the line transect survey was employed using topographic satellite maps. There were 192 species of coral under 57 genera in 15 families were recorded from Andaman and Nicobar during the period 2004 – 2006.
  • Periodic surveys conducted to assess the reef health across different islands in Andaman indicated that the reefs suffered extensive bleaching (upto 70%) during May 2010 due to elevation of sea surface temperature. The bleached reef associates have fully recovered, massive corals are recovering while all the affected branching corals (Acropora sp) were dead.
  • Altogether 51 marine sponges were collected of which 27 have been described through conventional taxonomy. Antimicrobial assay of host vis-à-vis the associated bacteria was carried out for eight sponges. The bioactivity of Pseudoceratina purpurea, was predominantly due to host metabolites, while in all others the associated bacteria displayed higher inhibitory bioactivity than their hosts.
  • Two marine sponges Stylissa sp and Iricinia sp collected from North Bay, South Andaman were studied for their antimicrobial properties against selected pathogenic bacteria. About 70% of the isolates associated with Stylissa sp werefoundtoproduce antibiotics and one of them was about 120% as effective as erythromycin against Klebsiella pneumonia.
  • Four sponges collected from Pongibaalu viz., Crella cyathophora, Oceanapia sagittaria, Plakortis sp and Monanchora sp were studied for their antimicrobial properties against selected pathogenic bacteria. Qualitative dual culture assay revealed that in case of Oceanapia sagittaria and Monanchora sp, the antimicrobial activity was primarily due to the host metabolites. In Crella cyathophora and Plakortis sp., over 75% of the associated bacteria exhibited significant (P<0.05) antimicrobial activity against the selected pathogens.
  • To assess the climate change threats in Nicobar Islands,  agricultural vulnerability map of Car Nicobar was prepared based on multiple parameters viz., elevationabove mean sea level, estimated sea level rise of 0.3-0.5m, soil quality/depth and land-use pattern. It was observed that about 20% of the area in Car Nicobar has high to very high vulnerability to climate change as predicted globally. The soils in these islands are generally medium in available N (4.47-7.19 kg/ha) and low in available K (115-194 kg/ha), which imply that climate change-induced increase in rain fall or seawater ingression would lead to soil erosion, leaching of salts and salination of coastal lands thus rendering the soils unproductive for agriculture.

SocialScience

Market and export potential analysis of marine fishery resources in Andaman and Nicobar islands

  • In A & N Islands about 97 number of  fisherman villages and 3274 families driving livelihood from fishing profession with more than 15000 population. These fishermen mostly migrated from nearby states.
  • Total potential of fisheries in A & N Island is about 1.48 lahk tones but due to lack of infrastructure and equipments only less than 20 percent is being harvested.
  • The income structure of fisherman indicated that most of them are low income people.
  • They drive about 70% income from fishery sector and 30 % from labour, carpenter, net knitting and other sources.
  • Consumer fish price indicated that it has been increased about 63 % from 2008 to 2011.
  • Market cost incurred by the different intermediaries mostly on transport, Ice, labour expenses etc.

An economic analysis of floriculture and vegetables potential in andaman and nicobar islands

  • Prices of flowers and vegetable are having very unpredictable behaviour.
  • Islands are producing most of vegetables in sufficient quantity in February to April only rest of the period it is being imported from mainland.
  • Market infrastructure including transportation and cold storage facilities are poorly developed.
  • High price differences in different sites of productions and consumption.
  • Poor database on market information about flowers and vegetables.
  • The total flower sellers in these islands were 32 no. Shops.
  • Total area required to meet the local demand is about 7.0 ha. Under protected cultivation.
  • Huge money can be saved for local flower cultivators by producing flowers locally.
  • The impact of the recommendation of project is that more area has been put up by the agriculture department A & N Administration under protected vegetable and flower cultivations.

Economic valuation of mangroves in andaman and nicobar islands

  • Total economic value of the A & N Mangroves was worked out to be more than 12000 crore/ Annum on current price.
  • Per households harvest more than Rs. 65000/- worth benefits annually from the mangroves. Per ha. Economic value of mangroves was found to be more than 2.0 lakh/ha./ annum.

Natural resources degradation and socio economic impact of leased farming in Andaman

  • Minimum rate of soil erosion observed in forest sites.
  • Nutrient levels were greatly enhanced under forest canopies.
  • Sediment had also had lower organic matter content, nutrient concentration and pH values.
  • More clay was eroded on steeper slopes.
  • Selective clay depletion will have serious implications on soil structure and fertility.

Identifying Livelihood Options and Training Needs Compatible to Self Help Groups to Fructify these Options

  • The status of credit linkages of the Self Help Groups  in these islands was studied which reflects that a total of 702 groups have been credit linked of which 481 are in South Andaman comprising of 435 as women, 17 men and 29 mixed groups.  In North & Middle Andaman district out of 213 groups, 175 are women followed by 20 men and 18 mixed groups and in Nicobar district only 8 groups which are women only have been linked.  The overall credit linkage of the Self Help groups accounts for only 31.60%. 
  • The strength of the group was found to be 10.48 with the average corpus money of 1.26 lakhs per group which was found to be optimum to start any agriculture & allied enterprise as livelihood venture. 
  • The findings on the   expenditure pattern on saving together accounted for 71 percent on social capital i.e. health, education and household.

Impact Assessment of Technological Interventions in Andaman

  • Over the period from 2000-2011 the Institute, has been successful in transferring 136 technologies in agriculture and allied fields for the benefit of the stakeholders of the A & N islands.  The contribution towards the technology transfer comprises i.e. 31(23%) by division of Animal Science, 29 (21%) by Horticulture & Forestry, 24 (18%) by Natural Resource Management, 23 (18%) by Field Crop Improvement and Protection, 22 (16%) by Social Science and 7 (5%) by Fisheries Science Division. 
  • Out of 136 technologies   during 2000-2011 transferred by the Institute, following technologies viz   crop Based (BBF, Rice variety and IPM module),      Livestock based (Boer goat, Pig and Quail) & Fisheries based (IMC, Fresh water prawn & Crab fattening were selected. Interview schedule was constructed and data collected among the representative sample.
  • Technology on Composite fish Culture with CRM was also promising both at South & North & Middle Andaman District.  In few cases the farmers have restored the adoption of the technology even after Tsunami 2004 in South Andaman which describes about the potential of the technology at ground level.   An   average harvest return of 2.5 to 3.0 t/ha/year. Was received.Many farmers through the sale of the fish i.e. 1.5 to 2 per year could earn an income of Rs. 1.85 to 2 lakhs.  Fish & poultry has become one of the components in their family consumption. The horizontal spread of the technology was found to be to the tune of 20 ha. The farmers are getting a regular income and assured nutritional supplement the family.
  • BBFs introduced under the FRARP project were found to have been adopted by the farmers in the village clusters of South Andaman. They opined that it was a good technology which assured round   the year return from the field, mitigated the risk factor and also gave an additional income.  There was an additional income of Rs 20 to 25000/ and employment generation of 90 to 120 mandays. The problem was of pest & disease attack as there on the crop grown because the neighbouring farmers have not restored to farming completely was seen. Extension of the area   due to joint mutation of the land was not possible.The upscaling of the technology has been done as the Lead Bank has sanctioned to finance the technology through KCC.The Administration has come forward to popularise the technolog through RKVY Scheme.
  • The detailed study with more samples of the technologies in South, Middle & North Andaman is in progress to give a feedback on Socio economic impact (before & after), technology gap, technology index, technology spread & constraints in adoption.

Database development

  • Developed ANN model for forecasting of rice yield for the island
  • Database on AGRANI have been developed and linked with the website

Project-Potential and prospects of Campbell Bay being production hub to meet requirements of PDS (rice) and perishable foods of Nicobar district

  • The detail of arable land was worked out in Campbell Bay. A total 2448 acres (979.2 ha) land was allotted to 200 settlers from mainland out of this, only 61.5% was now available for cultivation.
  • As per NPR data, population of Nicobar group of islands is 39949 out of which Campbell Bay population is 8679.
  • As per ICMR guidelines, the requirement (t/yr)of various food commodities for Campbell Bay/ Nicobar group has been worked out as given: Cereals-1410/6492, Pulses- 90/413, Vegetables- 513/2362, Fats & oils- 121/555, Meat/ fish- 253/1163, Milk- 593/2730 and Roots & tubers – 432/1990.
  • The family size of respondents was 4.41. In the family, maximum numbers were young (56.24%) followed by old (26.76%). Adolescent population was only 17.23% of family size.
  • The farmers in C/B were earning a monthly income of Rs 16060 per family out of which govt service sector was contributing 39.13% followed by agriculture (29.54%) and private jobs (13.79%.
  • Among field crops, rice, maize and jowar were occupying an average area of 2.73 acres per farm. Plantation crops were being raised in 3.94 acres per farm. The operational expenses were Rs 2520/acres in case of field crops of rice, maize and jawar, Rs 2439 in case of pulses and Rs 8390 in case of vegetabes.
  • Livestock economy of in C/B  was not very strong. On an average, livestock worth Rs 15842 were kept by the farming families. Piggery were not so preferred vocation in C/B. Milk production was found to be economical and feasible.
  • The most effective source of agriculture technology information was found to be radio (freq. = 0.49) followed by TV, NGOs and Govt department.
  • To assess the timely availability and quality of inputs, farmers were asked to give score between 0-10 ranges. Except machinery and manures all other inputs were not available in time. Their score was below 5.0/10. Same was the case with their quality.
  • On an average, the expenditure on food per farm family in a month was Rs 3961. Maximum exp. was on milk and milk products followed by vegetables, non-veg foods, pulses, fruits and rice and wheat.
  • Given the average productivity, the potential harvest would be 1911 tons of rice, 108 tons of pulses and 1072 tons of vegetables per annum from 603 ha land assuming 50:50 ratio in field and plantation crops.

Demand and Supply Analysis of Livestock Products in Andamans

  • During the 1st year of investigation, socio-economic status of the farmers of South Andaman was assessed.
  • Primary data collected from livestock farmers showed that they were earning an income of Rs. 16674/ per month per family out of which max. Contribution was from service sector (52.98% followed by private jbs (30.49%. Agriculture share was only 5.35%.
  • The value of livestock kept by the families was Rs 23073 out of which about 50% was from desi cattle.
  • Price behaviour of livestock products showed that there was no difference between prices in dry season or wet season except chickens and pork. The prices of meat and chicken were rising faster than milk and its products.
  • Production was more in dry season n case of milk and eggs. So was the case for consumption as well.
  • Total consumption expenditure per family was Rs 5001/ out of which nearly 50% goes for high value foods followed by vegetables. Non-food expenditure was s 2890/ per family per month.

Determination of carrying capacity of islands and its potential for organic farming

  • The population of the Andaman and Nicobar islands was projected in different age groups over time for 1931 and based on that, given the ICMR guidelins of daily requirements in various age-groups, the requirements of various food commodities were worked out and projections were made towards 1931. Island population is mostly dependent on mainland to meet out its cereal and other food requirements.
  • Base on the production and requirements, the availability status of different commodities was worked out. As of now the islands are deficit up to 74.94% in total cereal requirements, 69.34% in pulses, 99.48% in oils, 9.62% in milk and 89.62% in meat requirements. Sugar is totally imported from mainland. Island population is dependent on mainland for its requirement of potato and temperate fruits.
  • The deficit will persist towards 1931 in almost all commodities except milk and meat, the availability of these will improve and deficit will subside beyond 1921.
  • The fruits and vegetables are in excess in dry season only but due to non availability of cold storage, their availability is difficult to maintain in rainy season. The situation can improve only at the policy levels.