Central Island Agriculture Research Institute
Important Announcements:

Horticulture & Forestry

Varietal Evaluation and Standardization of Agro techniques in Tropical Fruits:

  • Eighteen mango clones (Mangifera indica Linn.) including fourteen from Andaman and four from Tamil Nadu were examined for genetic diversity using 60 RAPD primers.

  • Biochemical Characterization on flowering behaviour of wild mangoes of Bay Islands were done.

  • Four local accessions of papaya were collected for their yield and were evaluated. The local accessions GL-1 and GL-2 exhibited higher yield and quality characters when compared with the mainland collections.

  • Biochemical and molecular characterization of Musa sp.in Bay Islands were done. The cultivated bananas are collected from different locations (CIARI germplasm block and villages of South Andaman).

Improvement and Standardization of Agrotechniques of vegetable crops:

  • Thirteen varieties of Cowpea were evaluated. Among the varieties, Sweta (pole type) recorded the highest yield of 112.6 q/ha followed by Indira Hari (bush type), which recorded the yield of 107.5 q/ha.

  • Eleven varieties of French beans were evaluated. Among the varieties Contender, IIHR-909 and Arka Anoop were found to be promising one for Island conditions, which recorded the yield of 116,112.5 and 96 q/ha respectively.

  • Twenty eight varieties of chillies were evaluated and only eight varieties were retained for study. The variety LCA-353 was promising with a Twenty eight varieties were evaluated and only eight varieties

  • Evaluation of six varieties of cowpea revealed that among the varieties tested, the variety VRCP-5 recorded the highest yield of 54.2 q/ha followed by VRCP-6 (36.8q/ha)
  • Out  of thirteen varieties of French bean tested, the variety Arka Anoop was  found superior to  all other entries with the yield of 102.73 q/ha , maximum number of pods per plant (30.1 no) and highest weight of ten pods (104.4 gm) followed by Swarna  Lata (91.22q/ha).

Improvement of coconut and arecanut:

  • Morphological and yield parameters recorded on arecanut varieties (20 yr old) revealed that the variety Samrudhi recorded the highest number of nuts (815 nos.)  per tree followed by Mangala (614 nos.)The dry weight of challi/nut was also highest in Samrudhi (3.50g) whereas the variety Cal-31 recorded the least weight of challi (2.3g).

  • Evaluation and variability analysis (Morphological and molecular ) of coconut has been done.

  • Four dwarf lines viz., CARI-C-1(CARI-Annapurna), CARI-C-2 (CARI-Surya), CARI-C-3 (CARI-Omkar) and CARI-C-4 (CARI-Chandan) were submitted to State Variety Release Committee for release.

  • A high yielding Arecanut selection (CARI-Sel-1) was made from the local materials from South Andaman.

Tree- soil-Crop Interactions in Agroforestry Practices in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands:

  • The study of soil N mineralization under high rainfall regime of Andaman was done across the land use systems, NH4+/NO3- ratio during the incessant rainfall was found more than 3 times higher compared to that during the dry spells. Microbial biomass C, ranging from -18 to 803 µg g-1 in the moist evergreen forest,-11 to 786 µg g-1 in semi-evergreen forest and -22 to 786 µg g-1 in home garden, differed significantly due to the rainfall conditions (P<0.0001).The available phosphorus as well as microbial biomass P varied  due to the land use systems. Available P was 19 to 20% higher in termite soil compared to that bin the native soils. Microbial biomass P was 24to 32% higher in termite soil compared to that bin the native soils.

Introduction and Evaluation of Exotic and Less Known Indigenous Fruit crops

  • Seed sowing and germination studies (monthly intervals), assessment of specific gravity and physiological loss weight studies of Morinda citrifolia collected from different accessions were done. The seedlings MEM-3 and GAH-1 germinated within 5 days whereas HD-6 and PBAY-7 germinated in 19-20 days. Maximum specific gravity (1.42) from HD-6 accession and minimum (1.12) from SPG-2 accession was recorded in mature fruits. Maximum shelf life of mature fruits lasted for 9 days (GAH-1, SPG-2, MEM-3 and PBAY-7 accession) followed by 7 days (WAND-4, JHG-5 and HD-6 accession).

Standardization of agrotechnique for organic black pepper cultivation in Andaman and Nicobar islands

  • To standardize the agro-techniques for organic cultivation of black pepper,  about 364 black pepper cuttings (2- yr old) (Panniyur 1) were planted on the standards of Gliricidia as an intercrop of coconut at Sipighat farm. Spacing of coconut is 7.5 x 7.5m, and either clove or nutmeg is planted in the centre of four coconut trees at 7.5 x 7.5 m spacing. Black pepper is planted on Gliricidia standards between rows of coconut trees.  These way two models: coconut- clove- black pepper and coconut- nutmeg- black pepper are developed, which are suitable for Andaman and Nicobar islands.N, P, and K requirement of Coconut– Clove– Black pepper plantation were estimated based on the litter production and biomass decomposition.

  • Similarly, leaf litter and Gliricidia pruning biomass together was found to produce 151 kg ha-1yr-1 N, 11kg ha-1yr-1 P and 158kg ha-1yr-1 K in coconut- nutmeg- black pepper model. However, requirement of the trees was: 226 kg ha-1yr-1 N, 129kg ha-1yr-1 P and 408kg ha-1yr-1 K. Additional requirement (75kg ha-1 N, 117kg ha-1 P and 251kg ha-1 K) of the trees might be met out by 112 t ha-1yr-1 cow dung. But, this value may change during subsequent years. Therefore, real production of Gliricidia pruning biomass in both the models could be obtained only when growth in black pepper vines and berry production are stabilized. Therefore, a long term study is required to suggest package of practice of organic black pepper cultivation under a coconut plantation.

Standardization of Technologies for Protected Cultivation of Vegetable Crops under A & N Conditions
  • Six varieties of tomato were evaluated under poly house, out of 16 tested, only  two highest yield was recorded from G 600 (79.47 t/ha) followed by Arka Vikash (70.17t/ha).

  • Out of seven varieties of capsicum tested, The highest marketable yield was recorded from Indra (47.63t/ha) followed by California Wonder (38.66t/ha).

Silvipasture system: effect of fertilizer and cutting on nut primary production (herbage production) in humid tropical climate of bay islands

  • Coconut based silvipasture system was evaluated at Sipighat farm with three grasses para (Brachiaria mutica) guinea grasses (Panicum maximum) and hybrid napier (Panicum purpurium) in three different situations between canopy, under canopy and open condition with three different levels (20, 40, 60 kg/ha) of nitrogen. Three grasses were grown under existing coconut trees planted at 7.5 x 7.5 m distance. Herbage production recorded in all the grasses declined at the both canopy positions compared to open and the similar trend was also recorded in the previous year. Herbage production was highest with the increased dose of N. Para grass resulted in higher herbage production followed by guinea grass both under and between canopy with a fertilizer dose of 40 and 60kg/ha. However, there was not much variation in the yield with the application of N at 60 kg/ha so application of 40 kgN/ha for para grass is optimum to achieve desirable yield. Under open condition hybrid Napier resulted maximum herbage yield compared to the other grasses which indicates its suitability.

  • Four indigenous fodder trees (Grewia glabra, Mussaenda macrophylla, Treama tomentosa and Euphorbia spp) were identified in the natural forest and three fodder grasses (Guinea, Para and Ischaemum rubosum) were selected for developing the sivipasture system under natural forest condition. The fresh and dry biomass production was highest in Para grass (10.8, 4.4t/ha respectively) followed by Guinea grass where as the indigenous grass recorded the least biomass production.

All India Coordinated Research Project on Tuber Crops

  • Germplasm collection trips were conducted in Hut Bay, Car Nicobar and NorthAndaman Islands. Colocasia accessions were collected from Middle Andaman, Little Andaman and Car Niobar while Dioscorea bulbifera germplasm was collected from Little Andaman. New accessions collected were of Greater yam (1), Colocasia (3) and Aerial yam (1) which are being multiplied in Germplasm Block at CIARI. With addition of these five new accessions a total of 36 genotypes of tuber crops are being maintained in the germplasm pool. Presentation with complete descriptors has been made for release of two varieties of Sweet Potato (CARI-SP-1 and CARI SP- 2) for releasing at state level. Field demonstrations were conducted at farmer’s field in South Andaman and North Andaman in 2009-10. Three thousand cuttings of sweet potato and 150 kg yam planting materials of elephant foot were distributed to 25 farmers in April 2009.

All India Coordinated Research Project on Vegetable Crops

  • Under AICRP (VC) trials, VRCP-6 and Arka Garima of cowpea, DWD-FB-1 of French bean, IIVR Sem-8 and IIVR Sem-11 of Dolichos bean, PB-70  and BS-54 of brinjal and Arka Vikash of tomato were found promising in Island conditions.

Standardization of Micro-Propagation Techniques for Potential Orchids and Ferns of A & N Islands

  • Different explants viz. leaf bits, suckers and spores were tried with different media and different concentration of hormones for each explants. Callus production was observed from leaf bits inoculated with MS + 2, 4- D 2 mg/lt. Spores were germinated in media containing MS+BAP+ Charcoal. The germinated spores and callus were transferred to  multiplication media and the trial is in progress

Standardization of Technology for Production of Quality Flowers Under Island Ecosystem

  • Fifteen varieties of gerbera viz., Marinilla, Pia, Province, Antonio, Villssar, Ravel, Lorca, Galileo, Loriana, Teresa, Judy, Manizales, Figaro, Palmira and Sonata were collected from Bangalore. Among the varieties, Maximum stalk length of 73.10 cm was recorded in Palmira. Manizales recorded maximum no. of flowers (40 flowers/plant/season) followed by Sonata (35 flowers/ plant/season).

National Network Project on Underutilized Fruits

  • Seven accessions each of mangosteen, durian and rambutan were collected from Regional station, IIHR, Chettali and Horticulture farm of Kallar and Burliar from Tamil Nadu and introduced in the field gene bank established at Garacharma farm. Two accessions of avocado and one accession each of longan, Garcinia and passion fruit were also collected from diverse sources and introduced.

  • The germination percent was highest in Passion fruit (55%), followed by Mangosteen (45%) and Avocado (40%) with least in Rambutan (25%). The minimum time for germination.

  • Physico-chemical characteristics of mangosteen, rambutan and passion fruit were analysed .Among the fruits, maximum TSS content was recorded in mangosteen (19.6 0 Brix) followed by rambutan (19.6 0 Brix). Highest percent of juice (28.93 %) and acidity (1.80 %) was recorded in passion fruit.

Collection, Conservation, Characterization and Identification of Superior Clones of Morinda Citrifolia

  • The accession with different phenotypic characteristics were collected and 14  germplasm each from Morinda citrifolia and Morinda trimera has been submitted for getting IC nos. at NBPGR, New Delhi. Out of 811 bands, 335 bands were polymorphic. The study showed 41% polymorphism among the 14 accessions of Morinda citrifolia. The result indicated that despite of their morphological identity, substantial polymorphism was observed among Morinda citrifolia accessions collected from different Islands.

Role of Alley Cropping System in Nutrient Conservation (nutrient build up + protection of fine soil particles from erosion) and Selection of Suitable Crop Sequence for the Cropping System for the Andaman Islands

  • An experiment was conducted in randomized block design with 5 treatments and 4 replications to evaluate the performance of grain amaranthus in alley cropping system during the post monsoon period. The treatments comprised of incorporation of Gliricidia pruned leaf biomass @ 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 t ha-1 along with control. The growth and yield attributing parameters were significantly influenced by the Gliricidia leaf biomass incorporation at 45 DAS and at harvest stage in grain amaranthus. The highest yield (770.2kg ha-1) was recorded with the incorporation of 10 t ha-1 pruned biomass in the alley cropping system followed by incorporation of 7.5 t ha-1 which recorded a yield of 763.2 t ha-1. However, both the treatments were on par with each other and significantly higher as compared to incorporation of 2.5 t ha-1 and no incorporation (control). This indicates that application of 7.5 t ha-1 Gliricidia pruned leaf biomass in the alley cropping system is optimum to achieve higher yield of grain amaranthus.  The incorporation of 10 t ha-1 Gliricidia leaf pruning registered the increase in available NPK content of the soil to the tune of 9.8 kg, 2 kg and 6.2 kg ha-1, respectively.

Germplasm Collection, Evaluation and Identification of High Yielding Genotypes of Jatropha and Karanja and their Multiplication in Bay Islands (NOVOD)

  • In South and Middle Andaman, Jatropha species namely J. curcas (50%) were found more when compared to other species such as J. gossypifolia (20%) J. Podogirica (10%) and J. multifida (10%), covering the land from wet to dry in the island J. curcas generally grown as live fence and also observed in waste land and in the same area J. gossypifolia were also observed. J. multifida was very rarely seen in some houses as ornamental plant. Pongamia pinnata (20%) was mostly found in seashore and Tsunami affected areas of South, Middle and North Andaman Districts of Andaman. In South Andaman four candidate plus trees of Jatropha curcas, one for J. multifida and two for J. gossypifolia  were selected from Jirkatang.

Beachdera and Mazar pahad and J. curcas from Farargunj, Chouldari for J. multifida and Sippighat and Garacharma for J. gossypifolia

  • Two plus trees were identified in New Wandoor and Chidyatapu  The observation made on their fruiting and flowering pattern, the pod size, shape and number of seeds in candidate plus tree revealed that girth of the trees ranged from 62 and 79 cm while the pod size ranged from 6x 3.1cm and 6x3.7 cm. Seed size ranged from 2.2x1.9 cm to 2.1x1.7 cm respectively. The weight of hundred pods from each tree was taken which was 1.341kg while the weight of hundred seeds was 0.396 kg. In Havelock two plus trees were identified. The observations recorded in the tree at Vijaynagar village of Havelock revealed the girth of tree as 152 cm with pod size of 8x3.7 cm, seed size measuring 2.5x2 cm, and hundred pods weighed 775.5g with weight of hundred seeds of 359.29g. Another tree was observed near Radhanagar beach area, Havelock with a girth of 57 cm. The size of the pods was 7x3 cm and the seed size was 2.5x1.6 cm. Weight of hundred pods and seeds were taken which measured 1.715kg and 0. 581 kg, respectively

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