Central Island Agriculture Research Institute
Important Announcements:


Field Crops Improvements and Protection


Rice


  • Three hundred and nine accessions of various early rice cultivars from IRRI were evaluated. Karjat-3 (6.88t/ha) and IR-69716-87-1-3-1-3 (5.94 t/ha) were found most promising

  • The rice hybrids such as PA 6444, JKRH 2000, PSD 3 and Suruchi were found to be high yielding.

  • Five medium duration (110-120 days) low land rice varieties viz. CARI Dhan-1, CARI Dhan-2, CARI Dhan-3, CARI Dhan-4 and CARI Dhan-5 were released with average yield of 5.2-5.4 t/ha in Bay Island conditions. Moreover, varieties CARI Dhan-4 and CARI Dhan-5 are also suitable for saline soil with yield of 3.0-3.5t/ha.

  • Twenty eight improved lines of rice were analyzed for quality characters. High hulling percent was recorded for UPR 1201-1-201 (82.06) and Karjat-3 (81.83%). These lines were found to have long and cylindrical grains with cooked rice grain elongated between 0.33 to 1.33%.

  • Evaluation of eighty long duration rice improved lines/genotypes indicated that six cultures viz., CB-05-022, Jagnath, MTU-1075, Urvashi, Rolagalakullu and Ramchand were found significantly better than CARI Dhan-5. A total of 13  genotypes, Amalmana, CB-05-156, CSR-4, DRR-1418, MTU-4870, CSR 36,MTU-1001, Lunishree, IM 1536, DRR 1501, Canning 7, Indravati  and Rambha showed resistance against multiple biotic stresses of diseases/insects. In long duration rice trial, maximum yield was recorded by Jagabandhu (4.49 tha-1), MTU. 2067 (4.39 tha-1) and MTU-1075 (4.32 tha-1).

Pulses & Oil

  • Ten promising varieties of green gram were evaluated for yield. Varieties in black gram IPM-062. Puna-9072, MH-124 and Pusa-0771 were found most promising with yield range of 0.18 to 0.29 t/ha. Varieties CBG-647 and TU 17-14 were found most promising with average yield of 0.81 and 0.77 q/ha respectively.

  • Twenty six sesame varieties were evaluated in Rabi season and variety PBS 9, PBS 18, PBS 17 and PBS 19 were found promising with yield potential of 1.09 to 1.41 t/ha.

  • Sixteen improved lines of green gram and 28 lines of black gram were evaluated during Rabi season. Six and seven high yielding varieties respectively of green gram and black gram have been identified for further confirmation.

Agriculture Important Microbes


  • A total of 273 agriculturally important micro organisms were isolated from the hot humid coastal agro eco system of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Among the total isolates 194 antagonistic rhizobacteria, 22 mycoparasitic fungi, 20 fungal pathogens and 25 bacterial pathogens were found to be associated with vegetable and spice crops.

  • A total 128 bacterial isolates were studied for their antagonistic activity against Sclerotium rolfsii, Collectotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici and plant growth promoting properties viz., IAA production, phosphate solublization and siderophore production. Out of these, 40 were identified as Bacillus spp. and 15 as Pseudomonas spp.

  • Performance of five fungal antagonists selected by in-vitro screening were evaluated in field trial, T. harzianum1 and T. hamatum 1 were found effective in controlling major diseases of chilly and brinjal.

  • In vitro screened 8 effective isolates of PGPRs were evaluated in field trial, Pseudomonas spp.  and Bacillus spp. were found effective in controlling major diseases of chilly.

  • Trichoderma hazarianum and Trichoderma hamatum 1 were found to be effective against soil borne disease of solanaceous vegetables.

  • The Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria like C26 and BBI were found effective in controlling damping off, root rot, leaf spot and wilt in tomato.

  • All isolates of Trichoderma spp. from rhizopshere soil of black pepper were very effective in suppression of mycilial growth of P. capsici and C. capsici.

  • The antagonistic bacterial isolates BB14, BL5 and BS1 inhibit both S. rolfsii and C. capsici. Isolates BB6, BR4, BR5, BR6, BR7, BR9 and BR6 inhibited more than 50% mycilial growth of C. capsici. PfR13 had strong phosphate and siderophore production property. PSN1 and PfB16 and BR7, BL5, BL6 and BS1 have strong phosphate solublization and siderophore production property respectively. Isolates PfC3 and BSN 3 produced more than 50ug / ml IAA and isolates BSDI, BC6, BM16, BM17, BM1, BM18, BSP2 showed 31-49ug/ml IAA production.

  • Antagonistic potential of 14 Trichoderma spp. were screened against S. rolfsii, C. gloeosporioides and C. capsici and found that isolate TSD 1 inhibited all the pathogens tested. TGD1, TND1, TGN1, TWN1, TMP1, TWC2 and TJP1 inhibited two pathogens significantly.

  • Fourteen isolates of Trichoderma were evaluated against P. capsici and C. capsici causing foot rot and anthracnose disease in Black pepper by dual culture test. Highest percent inhibition of P. capsici was recorded with Tv-CARI-27 whereas C. capsici was most parasitized with Tv-CARI-27.

  • Fourteen isolates of Trichoderma were evaluated against P. capsici and C. capsici by production of non-volatile antibiotics, Tv-CARI-26 and Tv-CARI-33 were found most effective against P. capsici and C. capsici, respcectively.

Pest & Diseases


  • Surveys of major vegetable growing areas of South Andaman revealed presence of 26 diseases in 13 vegetable crops belonging to four families. Highest disease severity and incidence were leaf spot of snake gourd/little gourd, wilt of brinjal, frog eye spot of chilly and leaf curl of tomato during rainy season.

  • Isolated and partially characterized 25 Ralstonia spp. associated with wilt of tomato, brinjal, chilly crops and their pathogenicity was assessed in the glass conditions.

  • Survey of pest and disease of black pepper revealed that foot rot (Phytophthora capsici) and pollu beetle (Longitarsus nigripennis) were most important disease and pest, respectively.

  • Of 375 lines of rice screened against major disease and insects under natural field conditions, 29 lines were found tolerant to insects and diseases.

  • The maximum Gundhi bug incidence was recorded in late maturing lines followed by medium duration, but it was very low in very early, early and medium early lines. The study revealed that there was 44 to 49% yield reduction in medium and late duration lines as compared to early and medium varieties.

  • Survey data revealed that coconut, oil palm, brinjal and tomato are seriously affected by rodent infestations. It ranged from 8-26, 40-50 and 8-34 percent respectively in the Islands.

  • Two peaks in fruit fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae) population were observed viz., April (13.51/Trap/week) and December (16.94/trap/week). The study indicated that fruit flies were prevalent throughout the year and need proper management strategy accordingly.

  • Field survey revealed that the rodent infestation in coconut ranged from 2.5- 74.52% in Andaman. The nut damage ratio ranged from 4.16 to 6.25%. The average rodent infestation was 26.09% and average nut damage was 5.10%.

  • A total of 18 rodent sps were identified and reported. Out of these, 3 spp Little Indian Field Mouse (Mus booduga), Asian House Rat (Rattus tanezumi andamanenesis) and Cutch rock-rat (Cremnomys cutchicus) are newly recorded spp.

  • The high intensity of Rhinoceros beetle infestations in coconut palms was noticed all over the South, Middle and North Andaman. The pest incidence ranged from 0.5 to 41.32%. Infestation of the scale insect was low compared to Rhinoceros beetle. High intensity of scale insect was recorded in Andaman Plantations (Meethakhadi) of South Andaman (9.46%).

  • High intensity of bud rot disease of coconut was found in V. K. Pur of Little Andaman (31.25%) and stem bleeding was found in Krishna Nagar of Havelock Island (9.6%).

Integrated pest & disease management


  • The combination of biocontrol agents + chemical fungicides at relatively lower concentration + neem cake was very effective in management of disease complex of tomato.

  • Aqueous leaf extract of Syzgium aromaticum inhibited the growth and development of Spodoptera litura and affected the larval-pupal survival and adult emergence in a dose-dependent manner. It is clearly indicated that due to Syzygium aromaticum extracts intoxicated food, 90 per cent larvae died at early instars, hence the larval population could not reach the crucial late instars stage, which is could be responsible for crop damage.

  • Module consisting of combination of cultural practices, biocontrol agents and fungicides were most effective in percent reduction of disease incidence and increasing yield of tomato. The results also suggested that crop rotation with non host crop and intercropping with Burma dhania with tomato resulted into improved disease control and yield of tomato.

  • OFT trial on disease management of tomato revealed that seed treatment + seedling dip with copper oxychloride +soil application of the CARI-5 along with FYM and neem cake (5.0 kg/m2) + two sprays of neem oil (2%) was found most effective in percent reduction in disease incidences of bacterial wilt, leaf curl, basal stem rot and fusarial wilt of tomato in all five farmer’s field.

  • IPM module for pollu beetle showed that lowest percent berry damage and highest yield of black pepper was recorded in integrated module with pruning, soil application of neem cake and foliar spray of neembaan and quinalphos treatment as compared to other modules tested.

  • Out of 6 plants tested, Syzygium aromaticum, Amommum aculeatum and Morinda citrifolia were found effective against fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae as LC50 (Median lethal concentration) was 8.83, 10.67 and 10.85% respectively.

Biotechnology

  • 20 RAPD and ISSR markers were used to infer genetic similarity among 23 different samples of wild jamun. The dendrogram differentiated all the samples of wild jamun at 67% similarity with RAPD primers and 44% similarity with ISSR primers.

  • A total of 43 PGP bacterial isolates from banana and rice rhizosphere were characterized by PCR-RFLP using 7 different restriction enzymes. 16s rRNA gene sequencing and BLAST similarity search identified these isolates as Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp.

  • 15 antagonistic isolates of Trichoderma spp. were characterised by PCR-RFLP using 3 different restriction enzymes. rRNA gene sequencing and BLAST similarity search result identified these isolates as Trichoderma ovalisporum, Trichoderma viride andTrichoderma harzianum.

  • Regarding pesticide residues in vegetables, the sample of brinjal, okra, cauliflower, cabbage and green chilly collected from different parts of South Andaman including Chouldhari, Sitapur, Ramnagar and Humfrigunj showed moderate level of pesticide residues. Samples collected from Mayabundar showed no residue at all.

  • In mushroom, Calocybe indica gave 30-40% efficiency and Hipsyzygus ulmarius gave 40-50% biological efficiency on paddy straw. Both these mushroom spp. were found to be promising for cultivation in these Islands.


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